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Setnper aliqiiid novi ex Africa. 





All rights reserved. 

I. and R. court-typography Charles Prochaaka, Teschen. 



Africa, with its wild, virginal hunting fields and its heart 
of mystery, that has still to yield up its secrets to the explorer, 
has at all times excited a lively interest in me. 

Many of my friends and acquaintances have made it the 
scene of their travels or the field for their exertions, more than 
one to find there, alas an untimely grave. 

The various reports having served to strengthen my con- 
viction in the ultimate and supreme mission of the dark continent 
as the source from which exhausted Europe would draw that 
vitality necessary for its future nourishment, the range of my 
enquiry naturally became increased, and I missed no opportunity 
to collect and note down thoroughly reliable information. 

Soon afterwards it became my duty to make myself 
acquainted with African affairs, and I also seized this occasion 
to enrich my knowledge and complete my notes. 

And here I cannot refrain from putting on record my in- 
debtedness, first and foremost, to my valued friend. Professor 
Dr. Paulitschke, Private Lecturer at the Vienna University. It 
is to his clear and comprehensive lectures, based upon concise 
and intimate knowledge, as well as to the study of the litera- 
ture recommended by him, that I owe an accurate and reliable 
insight into the social and political relations prevailing in Africa. 

In my opinion, a general survey of the African question 
forms the only true basis for any further detailed knowledge. 



1 therefore clierish (he hope that tliis sliort compilation of the 
chief points of interest concerning the separate territories of Africa, 
as I have endeavored to reproduce tliem in tliis work, will be 
of some practical use at least to those who wish to obtain in- 
formation speedily. 

This work is intended as a vade mevum, which should 
partly serve to give a general idea of, 

1. Where the different civilised powers ' of Europe have 
taken a firm footing on African soil; 

2. The historical part played by them in the course of 
time concerning the different territories from which actual 
or presumed rights may possibly be deduced; 

3. How and by what treaties and agreements the Powers 
concerned have decided upon their mutual frontiers and 
spheres of power. 

On the other hand, the method followed should serve to 
render the work convenient for reference. The work may have 
its deficiencies ; but the reader, desiring to collect further details 
based upon more circumstantial accounts, will at least have 
been set upon the right path. 

In the time in which we live events develop themselves 
with astonishing rapidity. Nowhere is this more the case than 
in the far Orient, as well as in Africa; so much so that the 
condition of things prevailing in these remote countries, which 
not long ago played a comparatively unimportant role in Euro- 
pean politics, is seen to be exerting an ever - increasing and 
powerful influence upon the mutual relations of the European 

That the African continent is portioned out amongst Euro- 
pean nations is perfectly true, but the precise definition of 
these territories, the process of acquisition and securing, the 
establishment of title deed, not to mention a world of minor 
question are matters by no means finally disposed of and are 


destined to continue of eventful and paramount importance to 
Africa as well as to Europe for some time to come. 

Setting aside everything else, the proper significance of the 
terms « Possessed », « Occupied territory », «Protectorate», « Sphere 
of interest », etc., may be said to be still undetermined in some 
parts of Africa. We have therefore yet to look forward to much 
technical and diplomatic work connected with boundary com- 
missions, missions and the conclusion of treaties. 

In my opinion there are still 12 distinct points which will 
shortly have to be considered, viz.: 

1. Egypt (Turkey, England, France, Italy, Abyssinia). 

2. The Southern Frontier of Tripolis (France, Turkey or 

3. Morocco, East and South (France, Spain). 

4. Rio dOro (Morocco, France and Spain). 

5. The Gold Coast Hinterland (France and Germany). 

6. The Togo Hinterland (England, France and Germany). 

7. The North- West of the British River Niger possessions. 
(England, France and Germany). 

8. North Ubangi (England, France and Turkey as well as 

9. Barotseland (England and Portugal). 

10. Manica Plain (England and Portugal). 

11. North of British East-Africa (France, England und Turkey 
as well as Egypt). 

12. The Southern and Western Frontiers of French Somali- 
land (France, Italy and Abyssinia). 

In revising my notes before committing them to print, I 
have had recourse to the best sources only, keeping the circum- 
stance consistently in view that the lion's share of African 
possessions falls necessarily to Great Britain, whose historical 
data I have accepted to a large extent as authoritative and 
final. These I have not failed to mention where they appeared 


to be of interest and importance. In making my compilation, I 
liave lart^ely used such publications as «The Population of the 
Eavtli* by Supan-Wagner ; ^Handbook to Andrea's Handatlas, 2nd 
Edition^: *Tlie Statesman's Year-Book» by Scott Keltic; «Tlie 
Gotha Diplomatic and Statistical Annual*; the White, Yellow, 
Blue and Green Books; Annual Reports; The Diplomatic and 
Consular Reports ; Colonial Reports ; Foreign-Office and Statistical 
Gazette; Official Handbooks for South Africa; the various 
«Annuaires»; Rapports Generaux; Colonial Reviews and Statistical 
Works in all Languages; the numerous works of explorers; and 
especially Petermanns Communications from Justus Perthes' 
Geographical Institute in Gotha; the publications of the Geo- 
graphical and Colonial Societies in London, Paris, Berlin and 
Rome, the African daily papers, and others. 

To my knowledge, there exists no short and summarized 
work concerning the African question. Having felt the want of it 
myself, I sought for it in vain. I wish to give my private notes 
to the public for what they are worth, hoping that they will 
prove as useful to others as to myself. 

I have again to express my thanks to Professor Dr. Paulitschke 
for his careful revision of the work and for his supplementary 
notes, as well as for his valuable assistance in designing the 
General Political Map of Africa, which I trust will prove useful 
in completing the information contained in the second Edition 
of my book of reference. 

Dresden, May, 1897. Ch. K. 


Preface Ill to VI 

Egypt 1 

Madhi's Dominion 5 

Tripolis 8 

Tunis 10 

Algiers 12 

Morocco 15 

Spanish Presidios, Rio d'Oro, Canary Islands 18 

Madeira, Azores, Cape Verde Islands 19 

Senegambia 21 

French Soudan 24 

French Guinea, Ivory Coast 26 

Portugese Guinea 28 

British West African Possessions 29 

British Gambia 30 

Sierra Leone ^^ 

Gold Coast 31 

Lagos 33 

Liberia 34 

Togoland 35 

Dahomey 36 

Niger Coast Protectorate 38 

Niger Territories 38 

The Independent States of Central Soudan 41 

Cameroon '^3 

Spanish possessions in Gulf of Guinea and on the Gaboon 45 

Portugese possession in the Gulf of Guinea 46 

French Congo 46 

The Congo State 49 

Portugese possession in Lower Guinea 54 

Ascension, Tristan da Cunha, Walfish Bay 56 

St. Helena 57 

German South West Africa ^^ 



Capo (.'olony 59 

Heohuanulaiul 63 

Khodosia. Hritish Zambi'sia 65 

IJritish Contial Africa 67 

Urilisb Central Africa i>rotectorato, Nyassaland 69 

Hasutolaud 70 

Natal 70 

Zululand. Tongaland 71 

(^nuijjo KopuMic 72 

South African lvO]iublic 73 

rortugoso Kast Africa 76 

^ladau'ascar and dependencies 78 

Mauritius and dependencies 80 

Keunion and dejiendencies 81 

The Coiuores Islands 81 

Zanzibar 82 

IJennan Kast Africa 84 

British East Africa 86 

Hritish Possession in Somaliland and Sokotra . 89 

French possession in the Gulf of Aden 91 

Italian possession in North East Africa 93 

Abyssinia 97 

Geograi»liical Register 101 


The introduction to tbo chapters is by geographical marginal notes: 

No. 1. Official territorial titles of the respective countries. 

No. 2. Frontiers and circumference of same. 

No. 3. Surface in sijuare metres or square miles. 

No. 4. Poi)ulation (actual and relative). 

No. 5. Divisiou.s (together with districts). Classification of same. 

No. 6. Possession (whether actual possession, protectorate or sphere of influence and 

extent of same). 
No. 7. History in chronological order. 

No. 8. Treaties and f^pecial diplomatic events (Ambjissadorial journeys). 
No. 9. Proposed regulation of frontiers and results obtained. 
No. 10. Government, Administration, Varia. 
A signifies that the syllable is long and accented. 
— signifies a long unaccented ' a .short and accented syllable. 


Kemi, 3Iis)\ Aegypten, J^gypte, JEgitto. Official title. 

The Wesfeni FronUer is formed by tlie Bay of Solum od the Frontiers. 
Mediterranean Sea, the Soutli-East Frontier by Cape (Ras) Kasar, on 
the Red Sea, 18" 2' North Latitude. The South Frontier is formed 
by the points Merawi and Debbeh (18" 30' North Latitude), to 
which the Anglo-Egyptiau Army has so far confined its hne of ad- 
vance since tlie conquest of Dongola in the summer of 1896. Tiie 
South- West Frontier, starting from the Bay of Sohim, is regarded as 
dividing the Libyan Desert in such a manner as to bring the centre 
of the Snussija, (Jarabiib Oasis) and also the Oases of Farafrah 
and Dakliel under Egyptian rule. Owing to the present unsettled 
state of affairs in the Soudan, the frontier towards the South-Fast, 
in the Nubian Desert, is undefined. 

The Egyptian Soudan embraced formerly the provinces of Nubia, 
Sennaar, Taka. Kordofan, Dar Fur and the territories on the right 
and left banks of the Nile, as far as the Equatorial Lakes, but 
without definitely fixed boundaries (see page 5 "The Mahdi's 
Dominion" and page 86 "Imperial British Fast Africa"). 

Superficial Area: 935,300 sq. km., to 1,300,000 sq. km. (1881, 
2,986,900 sq. km.); usually estimated at 994,300 sq. km. 

Cultivated Land: 29,120 sq. km. English official statements 
give the superficial area of P'gypt to-day in round numbers as 
400,000 square miles (1 square mile = 2-5898945 sq. km, ; 1 sq. km. 
= 0-3861161 square mile) of which 12,976 miles were already 
cultivated in the year 1896. 

Count KinKky: "Tho l)i|iIoinatiKt'8 IfaiKlliook for Africa". 


Population. I'loiu ail dfticial ictuni made at the beginning of May, 1894, Egypt 

(Siiakim and the Soudan exchided) contained 7,739,000 inliabitants 
(110,400 foreigners, including 8,000 liritish sohliers). Tiie last 
census, taken May ord, 1882, returned 6,400,000 inhabitants, 
of whom 90,880 were foreigners, an average of about 7 persons to 
tlie S(| km. Including the inhabitants of the Soudiin, the total population 
was returned at not less than 16 millions. 

i)ivisi«ms. Egypt is divided into 2 parts: (a) Misr-el-bahri, which is Lower 

Egypt or the Delta; (h) El Said, or Upper Egypt. These two parts em- 
brace five governmental sub-divisions (Mohafzas): 1. Suez Canal (Suez, 
Port Said, Ismailia), 2. Cairo, 3. Alexandria, 4. Rosetta and 5. Da- 
mietta, and sixteen Provinces or Mudirieh. These are again subdivided 
into districts (Markaz, Kism), Avhich are formed out of Nahiehs or Com- 
munities. The coast of the Red Sea, with Suakin, Kosseir, El Arish, 
and the Sinai Peninsula, is included in the jurisdiction of the 
Suez Canal. 

Possession. The wliole country is a tributary state of Turkey. For the 

"Sphere of Interest" of Turkey, see page 8. 

Hi-t..ry. From 3892-525 R. C. an independent nation. 

„ 525-333 R. C. subject to Persia. 

„ 333-323 R. C. subject to Greece (Alexander the Great). 
„ 323-30 R. C. period of the Ptolema^ans. 
„ 30 R. C— 638 A. D. subject to Rome. 
„ 638 A. 1). — 1517 A. D. Mohammedan Dynasties. 

1517 A. D. Egypt was conquered by the Turkish Sultan, Selim T, 
and turned into a Turkish Pashalic. 

The last Egyptian monarch, Mutawakkil, conferred upon Selim I. 
the dignity of a Chalifa. 

1798, July 1st, Napoleon Ruonaparte entered and took posses- 
sion of the country. May 1799, Upper Egypt, was conquered by 

the French, who held Egypt till September 1801, when they evacuated 
it, and the Turks again took possession. 

From 1801 to 1811, Egypt was under the actual rule of about 
500 Mamaluke princes. 

1805, August 3rd, Mohammed Ali in Egypt. 

1806, Mohammed Ali established as Governor, and in 1811 as 
absolute ruler. 1819 and following years, Mohammed Ali conquers 
Nubia and Sennaar (1820—1825) and Kordofan (1821). 

By the Hattisherif of February 13th, 1841, Mohammed Ali ac- 
quires hereditary succession. 

1848, Investiture of Ibrahim Pasha, Mohammed All's stepson. 

1849, August 2nd, Death of Mohammed All, who had become 

1849-1853, Abbas Pasha, Khedive. 

1854—1863, Said Pasha, Khedive. 

1863, January 2nd, Ismail Pasha ascends the Throne. 

1866, By the Firman of May 27th, Ismail Pasha receives the 
rank and title of Khidewi-Misr, i. e. "Viceroy of Egypt", and 
the right of "direct descent from the father to the eldest son", in 
consideration of a yearly tribute of 575,000 I. (Egyptian). 

1869, November 16th: Opening of the Suez Canal. 

1873, The Firman of June 8th, confers upon the Khedive the 
right of coinage and of the issue of loans, the right to inde- 
pendent administration of Justice, to conclude treaties with Foreign 
Powers, and to form an army of 30,000 men. The tribute to be 
raised to 669,175 I. (Egyptian). 

1874, Conquest of Bar Fur by Siber Pasha. 

1875, The "Tribunaux mixtes" take the place of consular juris- 

1875, Conquest of the Somali Coast and Ilarar. 

1876, April, Introduction of the "Caisse de la Dette Publiquc". 
1879, June 26th, Ismail Pasha is deposed. (Died March, 12th 1895, 

at Constantinople) and is succeeded by his son Taufyk, 

1879, Novoinbt'i- UMli. Kiiy])t by Kliedival Decree put under 
the genei-al control of Fiance and England (rescinded by Kliedival 
Decree of January IStb. 1S83). 

1S81, February 1st, Rebellion under Colonel Ahmed Arabi Dey 
in Cairo. 

1881, Sunniier, The Mahdi's lirst appearance in the Soudan. 

1882, iMay 20tli, Ibitish and French Squadrons before 

1882, June 8th, A Turkish Special-Envoy sent to Egypt. 

1882. duly lltli and 12tli, Bombardment of Alexandria, before 
the commencement of which the French withdraw. 

1882, September DUh, Dattle of Tel-el-Kebir : defeat of Arabi 


1882, November 5th, Mr. Gladstone's declaration in the House 
of Commons that English troops would remain in Egypt to maintain 
order. Lord Dufferin had already been sent to Cairo, October 31st, 
1882. (British Occupation.) 

1883, January 18th, Khedival Decree regarding the nomination 
of a British Financial adviser ("without whose concurrence no 
financial decision can be taken"). 

1883, November 3rd, Hicks Pasha's Army annihilated by the 
Mahdi near Kashgil. FA Obeid, the Capital of Kordofan, falls into 
the hands of the Mahdists. 

1884, June, The Mahdi's troops conquer Nubia as far as 
Berber, after Baker Pasha's defeat by Osman Digna near El Teb 
on February 4th, 1884. 

1885, January 26th, Fallof Khartoum and death of General Gordon. 
1885, May 26th, Evacuation of Harar. — December 24th, 

Ghasi Mukhtar Pasha sent to Egypt. 

1888, December 5th, Emin Pasha leaves the Equatorial Province 
with H. M. Stanley. 

1892, January 7th, Death of the Khedive Taufyk, who is 
succeeded by his son Abbas II Hilmi. 

1894, April, Appointment of Nubar Pasha's Ministry. 

1896, May, The expedition against the ^Nlahdi begins with an 
advance on and the conquest of Dongola, which is subsequently 
divided into two Mudirieh. 

Capital: Cairo, 576,4:00 inhabitants (1896). Varia. 

The Mahdi's Dominion. 

Known in Europe as the Egyptian Soudan, and in Egypt as Official title. 
Beled-es-Siidan or Mahdyja. 

The territory occupied by the followers of the Mahdi and his Frontier, 
successors (Dervishes) embraces the former "Egyptian Soudan". It 
stretches from Merawi on the Nile (18" 30' North Latitude) to about 
10° North Latitude, where the British Sphere of Interest begins (see 
under heading, "Imperial British East Africa"), and towards the 
West almost to 23'' East Longitude of Greenwich as far as the 
East Side of the independent Sultanate of Wadai. In the East it 
extends to the foot of the Abyssinian mountains, without any 
clearly defined boundary marks. 

The superficial area of the Mahdi's Dominion cannot be exactly Area, 
defined ; it may be equal to that of the Egypt of to day, but cer- 
tainly does not surpass it. The one million square miles given by 
the British authorities as its extent should probably be reduced to 
one half, as their figures would include the territories of the 
Upper Nile, which now belong to the British Sphere of Interest. 

The number of inhabitants in the Egyptian Soudan has Population, 
been formerly estimated — for instance in 1877 — at about 
11,800,000 inhabitants. These figures have been confirmed by 

IM\ i^ioii- 

Britisli authorities, but it is now i^a^norally acknowledged tliat three 
tiftlis of the population iiave since perislied under tlie rule of Chalifa 
Abihillahi. I'lie Mahdis Dominion therefore contains probably little 
nu) re than 8''^ millions, viz: 1 million in Nubia, 4 millions in Dar 
Fur, and 800,000 in KonlolVin, the rest being distributed over the 
remaijiing territories. 

Lower Nubia, I'pper Nubia, with Senaar (Dschesirah) and Taka, 
Kordofan, Takale and Dar l''ur. Only a very suiall part of the Bahr 
el-Ghasal. Dar Fertit and Dar IJanda districts obey the Chalifa, viz: on 
the r>ahr el-Arab, and on tlie right bank of the Nile towards Lado. 

I'oss.'SMuii. pij^. ^vinjie of this territory may be considered as actual posses- 

sion ; although the district of Bahr el-Ghasal is virtually territory 
invaded by the Dervishes. 

The Sultan of Turkey still lawfully claims the territory as an 
integral part of his dominion. 

History. 1881, First appearance of the Nubian, Muhammed Ahmed, from 

Dongola as the Malidi (the prophet promised by Mussulman Tradition 
and prophesied by Mohammed to reforui and restore the Mussulman 
Faith to power after a lapse of 1300 years). 

1882, In Sennaar the insurrection was subdued by Abd-el- 
Kader, but Dshesirah soon afterwards fell into the hands of the Mahdi. 

1883, (January), The Mahdi's followers storm El Obeid, the 
Capital of Kordofan. 

1883, November 3rd, Hicks Pasha defeated by the Mahdi near 
Kashgil and his army anniliilated. 

1884, February, General Graham defeats Osmau Digna at Teb 
and Tamaneb. — 3rd of June. Treaty by which the Bogo territories 
are ceded to Al)yssinia. 

1884, June, Death of the Mahdi and accession of the Chalifa 
Abdullahi, who was to be succeeded by two other Chaliftis nominated 
by the Mahdi, after which the descendants of Abdullalii were to 
have the right to the throne. 

1885, January 26th, The Chalifa AbtluUahi takes Khartoum, 
the Capital of the Egyptian Soudan. The attempted relief of the 
town by the British (Battles of Abu Klea and Gubat) fails, the 
expedition arriving too late to save Gordon Pasha, who had been 
killed in the street fight. 

1885, December, Victory of the English and Egyptians at Kobe. 
— June 80th, The Sultan of Turkey declares the Soudan to be 
Turkish possession. 

1888, December, General GreenfelPs victory over Osman Digna 
near Handiib. 

1891, P'ebruary 18th, England reconquers Tokar. 

1893, December 21st, General Baratieri's victory at Agordat. 

1894, May, Anglo-Egyptian campaign against the Mahdi's 
Dominion. Battle of El Teb. Conquest of Dongola. 

1894, July 17th, The Italians take Kassala. 

The Capital and Residence of the Clialifa is Omdurman on the Varia. 
White Nile which contains about 40,000 inhabitants. Khartoum is 
abandoned. The present ruler over the Mahdi's Dominion, Abdullahi 
Chalifet es-Sadik, reigns as Chalifa or Lieutenant Governor of the 
Mahdi, and therefore bears the title of Chalifa el-Mahdi. 


Taralmlus. (Ottoman title of the Vilajet) ; Tripoli. oiiioiai title. 

The Western Frontier begins near Ras Tadjer on the coast, 32 km FrontitMs. 
East of the fort and of Cape El Biban, and extends in a curve open 
to the East, through the Erg towards Ghadames, and thence through 
the district of tlie Tuareg Asgar or Asdscher towards Ederi, and 
South-West to Ghat. The Oases Ghadames and Ghat thus belong 

to Tripoli ;ni(l ni.iiiitaiii Ottoinini garrisons. The Softfh FroiiUcr 
extends linciudinii tlio Oasis I'Vz/aii). tVom (tIuU across tlie Oasis 
Tegvri. rxcliKiiiiL^- tlic KiitVa Oases, wliere no Turkish t,rooi)S are 
vi't uarrisoiu'd. The ijisl l-'roiilicr extends West of tlie Kufra 
group <d" Oases IVoiu tlie South Northwards to Jarahuh, wliich 
heh>ngs to Kgypt, and reaches the IMediterranean Sea at tlie Gulf 
of Scduiu near Ras el-kunais. 

Aiva. Tiie supcrtirial arm of the country kno^Yn as Tripoli is between 

1.008.000 sq. km. and! 1,213,400 sq. km. (898,738 s(iuare miles 
according to British estimates), of which the greater part is unculti- 
vated, and belongs properly speaking to the Sahara and Lybian Deserts. 

papulation. Fopulaiiiui: 1,300,000 (according to estimates); giving one 

person to the sq. km Of these 800,000 live in Tripoli itself, 
(100,000 in Fezzan, 800,000 iu Barka), and 500,000 in Benghasi. 
The number of foreigners (Europeans) has only been estimated in 
the town of Tripoli; in 1896 they numbered ()00 Italians, 20 
Frenchmen, 20 Englishmen, 2 Germans, 1 Swiss, and numerous 

Divirsions. The country is divided into two administrative districts, the Vilajet 

Tripolis with the Tripolitan states (the western portion), the Oases 
Ghadames, and Fezzan, together with Sella and Sokna and the 
Mutissaferat Benghasi, to which the regions of Barka or Cyrenaika 
and the Audshila and Dshalo Oases belong. 

Possession. The whole state forms tlie actnal and nudisputed possession of 

Turkey. The Western part of the Lybian Desert and the Eastern 
part of the Sahara, with the Taiserbo, Buseima and Kebabo (Kufra) 
Oases, the districts Tibesti or Tu, Wanjanga, Borku, r>odele, Ennedi, 
the Kawar Oasis, the district Kanem and the Sultanate Wadai, to 
which the larger part of the former Baghirmi country is 
now tributary, are considered as a sort of international Sphere of 
Interest of the Ottoman Empire. I1ie southern part of Baghirmi 

however is claimed by France as belonging to its Sphere of Interest 
in Nortli Ubangi. This Ottoman Sphere of Interest is bounded on 
the West by the caravan route from Kuka (Bornu) to Murzuq (Fezzan), 
on the South by Tsad-Lake, and about tlie 12*^ North Latitude, 
on tlie East by the States belonging to the Mahdi's Empire, Dar 
Fur, Kordofan, and West Nubia, as well as by Egypt. The whole of 
the ti-ade of this immense territory is chiefly directed towards Tripoli 
and Benghasi, and only a very small part to Egypt and the dominion 
of the Chalif of Omderman. 

Phoenician and Carthaginian Government; a flourishing Greek History. 
Government in Cyrenaika also. From 146 B. C. Roman govern- 
ment, later that of Byzantium. In the 7th and 8th Centuries A. D. 
conquered by the Arabs. For a short time a dependency of Sicily 
and Malta, then of Spain under Charles V. 

1551, The Turks conquer the Land. 

1714, Ahmed Caramanli Pasha makes Tripoli entirely indepen- 
dent of tlie Porte, establishes the Dynasty of Caramanli, and con- 
quers the Fezzan Oasis with the town Murzuq. From 1720, however, 
a tribute is paid to Turkey. 

1825, The Sardinian ships ^'Commercio'^ "Tritonc", "Maria 
Cristina", and "Nereide" i)ombard the town Tripoli under Captain 
Sivori, as Jussuf Pasha, the last Caramanli, had demanded tribute 
from Sardinia. 

18;-^5, Tripoli once more becomes an exclusivly Turkish possession, 
the Turks abolishing native government. 

The country is (/overned direct from Comtantinople. France has ^'aria. 
repeatedly demanded that the towns Ghadames and Ghat, where 
there are again Ottoman garrisons, should be yielded up to her. The 
Porte has not tioubled to take any steps in the matter. — Italian 
achievement: — Italian schools have existed in Tripoli since 1884. 
They were reformed and enlarged in 1888 by Crispi. (189G: 

Count Kinsky: "Tlic Diiiloinatist's H.iiulbonk for Africa". ^ 


Chililiviis Institute: 120 cliildron : Girl's school: 200 cliildron; Scuola 
tecnic'o lomnuMciiilo : 1^;") i)iii)ils.) 

Tliero aiv about ten important Italian connnorcial houses in 
tlie c'ountrv. 

Cnpital: Tripoli. ;\0 to 35,000 inhabitants. 


uffiriai title. Tunlsle (French), Timisis, AfriUjJa (Turkish). 

Front i. -IS. The Westcm Frontier, beginning at Roux (Cape Iloux) situated on 

the sea-coast East of La Calle, runs in a Southerly direction towards 
Tehessa, and crosses the Sliott Ghars. From this point the boundary- 
line in the Sahara is taken as running to the South of the Shott 
el-dsherid in a South-Easterly direction, till it meets in the Sahara 
the boundary-Une which proceeds from Ghadames towards the North. 
The East frontier reaches the sea-coast 32 km. East of El Biban 
(Ras Tadjer). — Tunis thus embraces all the laud inside this curve 
as far as Cape Bon. 

Ai.a. The miierficial area comprises between 99,600 sq. km. and 

118,000 sq. km at the outside. By British authorities 45,000 square 
miles, by Italian 116,000 sq. km. and by French 129,318 sq. km. 
are accepted as the Area. 

Population. Number of inhabitants: 1,500,000, i. e. about 15 persons 

to the (446,400 Nomads; 45,000 Jews; 1896: 15,977 French. 
Altogether 110,000 Europeans, of which 11,300 men form the army 
of occupation). 

Divisions. There are 22 Qaidate, or governmental subdivisions. The South 

is called Beled el-dsherid, viz: "Date-Land." 



French Protectorate siuce tlie 22nd April, 1882, under the Pt.ssession 
rule of a Resident- Minister. 

Phoenician, Carthaginian, Roman, Byzantine, Vandal and Arabian 
Governments. Conquered by Charles V. National Dynasties. 

1575 A. D. The Turks conquer the land. 

1691 A. D. The present Dynasty of the Ben Ali Turki succeeds 
to the government, which originates from Crete. The Bey's appoint- 
ment as Regent is confirmed by the Sultan, whose vassal he continues 
to the present day. 

1875, Convention between England and Tunis. 

1881, INIay. The French enter the country and conclude with 
the Bey Sidi Muhammed es-Sadok the Treaty of Qasr es-Said on 
May, 12th 1881, which sanctions their remaining in the land. 

1882, April 22nd. Tunis placed under French Protectorate. 

1883, June 8th. Treaty with France concerning the position of 
Tunis with regard to international law. 

1896, September 28th. Conclusion of three conventions with Italy. 

1897, January 13tli. Recognition by Spain of the present 
relation of Tunis to France. 

The French "Resident-Minister" governs exclusively, assisted by 
two secretaries. The Royal Prerogative belongs to the Bey, who, 
according to the Firman of the 25th October 1871, is a vassal of 
the Porte, but free from tribute. A ''Bureau des affaires Tuni- 
siennes" is established in the French Foreign Office. Since 1884 
French judges have presided at the Consular Court. The head 
of the Christian Religion is the Archbishop of Algiers under the 
title of "Primate of Carthagiuia". 

Capital: Tnnh, 153,000 inhabitants. 






OlfK ial litlr 

// A/ (/eric 






Tlic frontier runs in tlio irrsY from the mouth of the Muhlja- 
llivor across the Table-land of the Shotts into the Mediterranean, 
cuts through the Shott el-Gharbi, and extends almost to the Tuat 
Oasis. T/tc South frontier is not exactly fixed, but runs parallel 
with the 30" Latitude, as far as the vicinity of Ghadames, where 
it joins the Tripolitan and later the Tunisian Frontiers. 

The total mperjickd area is 477,913 sq. km., of which, however, 
only 818,334 sq. km. come under the administration of France, 
189,187 sq. km. belonging to the Sahara area. The nomads roving 
about this vast tract number 50,000. The area of the Frencli 
Sahara is calculated as covering 2,600,000 sq. km., taking into 
consideration the French Sphere of Interest towards the Soudan. 

4,429,421 Inhabitants (1896), 8 persons to the sq. km. (Algiers: 
1,400,000, Gran: 900,000, Constantine: 1,700,000). There are 
259,729 Frenchmen in the whole country, including the military 
power, 44,000 Italians and 3,700,000 Mohammedans. 

Algiers consists of 3 provinces : 'Algiers, Gran, and Constantine, 
and of the Gases, Wargla and El-Golea. 

The country is looked upon as an integral part of France and 
in no sense as a colony. The method of government, therefore, is 
totally different to that prevailing in the Colonies. — The country, 
as far as 30" Latitude, is in the immediate and actual possession of 
France. Above this point the military authorities, under the com- 
mander of the 19th Army Corps, rule a narrow stretch of the Sahara 
which has a roving population. 

The recognised Sphere of Interest of France (Franco-British 
Treaty of the 5th August 1890) South of iVlgiers and Tunis embraces 


tlie whole Western Sahara between Morocco and Tripoli, together 
with the Oases Gurara, Tiiat (Insalah) and Tidikelt, as well as the 
district between the caravan route of Fezzan on the Tsad Lake, 
and about the 12'' Longitude West of Greenwich on the one side, 
and the land stretching from the Eastern frontier of the Spanish Protecto- 
rate of Rio d'Oro to the Niger River, and along the course of the same, 
as far as the Town Say, on the other. According to the treaty in 
question between France and England of the 5th August, 1890, this 
territory is further bordered towards the East by a line which runs 
from the Town Say on the Niger in a northerly curve in the Sahara 
to the Town Sinder, 15*^ North Latitude, and thence directly East over 
Guro to the West shore of the Tshad Lake near to the 14" North 
Latitude, so that the whole country of the Tuareg, Tuat, Tidikelt, 
also the Damerghu Territory and the North -West border of the 
Tshad Lake belong to the French Sphere of Interest. (1 million 
square miles superficial area.) 

Carthaginian, Numidian, Roman, Byzantine, and Vandal govern- History, 
ment. Conquered by the Arabs in the 8th century. Arabian and 
Moorish Sovereigns. Since 1492 A. D. Moorish pirate state; from 
the second half of the 16th century under the nominal suzerainty 
of Turkey, but in reality independent. Tlie pirates were held in 
check by Louis IX of France, Charles V, and Louis XIV. 

1708, Spain finally withdrew the garrison which had been 
maintained in Oran since 1492 A. D. At the head of the military 
republic stood the Deys, proclaimed by the Janissary, the last of 
wliom, Hussein, surrendered to the French arms on the 5th July, 
1830, and was held prisoner by the French at Alessandria in 
Italy till his death. 

1831 — 1842, February. War with Abd el-Kader. 

1834, July 22nd. Royal ordinance, according to which tlie 
con^iuered district is to l)e called "Possessions frau(;aises dans le 
noid de TAfiiiiue". 


1844. Fremli war ai;ainst Moroi'cit, wliithcr Abd el- Kader tied. 

1847, Deceniber lUtli Capture of Abd el-Kader. 

1852 — 1858. Takiiii;' of Iuiij;liuat. Tlie lleiii iNKzab come under 
French ])rotection. 

1858 — 1854, 'J'lie Oases of Tuggurt and Wadi Suf, as well as 
Wargia captured. 

1S58 — 181)0, Algiers placed under a ^Ministry "for Algiers and 
the Colonies." 

18(32, Tieatv of Ghadaines with Tuareg. 

1881, Revolt of m Aniena. 

1882, Novembei- 17th, Incorporation of the Beni M'zab district. 
1896, December Hist, Reorganisation of tiie aduiinistration. 

Varia. The French Chamber has the sole right of legislature in Algiers. 

— France protects the Moroccan Sherif of Wesan. 

Capital: Algiers, 82,585 inhabitants. 


Official titu-. Macjlii'th el (iqsd (i. e. "Extreme West"), el GImrh (i. e. "the 


Kiniiti.'is. The Moroccan district begins on the coast of the Mediterranean 

Sea by the mouth of the Muluja-River*), and extends to the South 
as far as of Cape Juby (28'' North Latitude). A commercial settlement 
was founded on this important point as early as 1764, reestablished 
in 1876 by the British North -West Africa Company, and having 
been repeatedly destroyed, was purchased by Morocco in 1895. 
The Spanish Protectorate of Rio d'Oro begins South of Cape Juby. 
— • The E(xst and South Frontiers are not yet defined ; their 

*) Except the Spanish Pi-esidios (see p. 17j and Ifni, near Cape Nun. 


course in the Sahara, East of Cape Juby, is siicli that the Nomads 
on tlie banks of the River Wadis, which discliarges itself into the sea 
between this Cape and Cape Nun, are subject to tlie Sultan. The 
line then follows the upper course of the Wadi Di-aa towards the 
North East, and in the East in the direction of the Tafilet Oasis, 
which belongs to Morocco. Tuat with Ain Salah (Insalah) belongs al- 
ready to the P'rench Sphere of Interest. To the East of the Figig Oasis 
the boundary-line inclines towards the mouth of the River Muliija. 

The accounts of authorities concerning the area of the Sultan's Area. 
Kingdom are, to say the least, conflicting. Whereas formerly 
800,000 sq. km. were the recognised figures — which would still be 
correct if Tuat were included (a view apparently untenable) — 
one may very well put down the area, Tuat and the parts of the 
desert excluded, at 450,000 sq. km. (according to English estimates 
219,000 square miles). Of these 439,240 sq. km. belong to the old 
territory and about 10,000 sq. km. to the new possession in the 
'vicinity of Cape Juby (El Gada). 

The estimated number of inhabitants in Morocco has varied i*<>p»iation. 
since the land was first explored by Europeans between 2,500,000 
and 9,400,000. The population is generally estimated at from 5 
to 8 millions. 8 millions appear to be the most correct figures (about 
18 persons to the sq. km.). Gerhard Rohlfs, however, gave in 1883 
only 2,700,000 inhabitants. Taking the highest figures as correct, 
according to English estimate, the population is divided as follows : 
Fez 3,200,000, Morocco 3,900,000, Tafilet 800,000, Sus and Draa 
territories 1,400,000. — There are about 1500 foreigners in the 

The Dominion embraces the Sultanates of Fez (Fas) and Morocco Division. 
(Merakesh), formerly independent of each other, the Oases Tafilet, 
Figig, Kenatsa, Tazzctrult, Sidshilmessa, Rif, the Wadi Sus, Wadi 
Draa and Cape Juby. Tiie Empire is divided into 44 districts or 


Amaliits. ;it the IunuI of wliicli aio Paslias or (^);ulis. TIk^ Hedoiiins 
have their own cliii'f. who is a])point(Ml hv tho Sultan. 

Possession. rii,> wlioh' district is consideiHMl the actual possession of the 

Sultan, hut his word is seldom respected by the IJedouins. There 
is no Moroccan Sphere of Interest. 

History. JMoorish-Carthai^inian, Roman, Gothic, Vandal and Byzantine 

government. Arabs conquered the T^and in the 8th century A. D, 
Piratical state. Occasionally attacked by Spain and Portugal. Under 
the descendant of Abbassides, Idris'ibn'Abdallah, Morocco was raised 
to the im])ortance' of a large independent State (Dynasties : Edrisiden, 
Fatimiden, Omajaden of Spain, Alnioraviden, Almohaden, IJeni Mcrini 
of Figig, Assaniten of the Wadi Draa, and finally since 1G99 A. D. 
Fileliten [Aliden] of Tafilet). The Empire always remained inde- 
pendent of the Porte. 

1672 till 1727 A. D. War with Spain. — Foundation of the 
Presidios (see page 17). 

Till 1822, A. I). Great civil war and internal crises. 

1844—1847. War with France and bombardment of Tangiers, 
and Mogador (Battle of Dsholi). Morocco surrendered in 1847 the 
North-East district to Al)d el-Kader. 

1845, French-Moroccan treaty concerning the East frontier of 
the Empire. 

1851, November 25th, Bombardment of Saleh by French ships. 

1856, French campaign under de Colomb and Count Wimpffen 
against Morocco. 

1859 — 1860, April, Renewed war with Spain and defeat of 
the Moroccans at Tetuan. 

1894, -Tune 6th, Sultan Mulej Hassan dies; Mule] Abd el-Aziz 
succeeds him. 

1895, Morocco purchases the fort on Cape Juby. 


The most important of the European ambassadorial journeys Diplomatic 
to Morocco, from whicli the greatest number of commercial treaties '^•"•atjons. 
resulted, are : 

1825, French Embassy under Caraman and Delaporte. 

1829, British Embassy under Washington. 

1830, Austrian Embassy under Pflugl and Baron Augustin. 
1830, French Embassy under de Chasteau and Roche. 
1856, British Embassy under Drummond Hay. 

1863, Spanish Embassy under Don Merry and Colom. 
1875, Italian Embassy under Edmondo de Amicis. 
1877, German Embassy under Weber and Zembsch. 
1882, Italian Embassy under Cremas. 
1896, British Embassy under Sir Arthur Nicolson. 

The Sidtan rules as Emir el-mumenin (i. e. : "Master of the varia. 
Faithful"), but in the North-East of the Country the authority of the 
Sherif is also recognised. The latter is under French protection and 
resident in Wesan, but only exercises a religious jurisdiction. 

The postal service is managed by Spain and France. 

Capital of Morocco (Merakesh) is Fas {Ft's), 140,000 inhabitants. 
The foreign representatives and consuls reside in Tangiers; 30,000 

Spanish Presidios^ Rio d'Oro^ Canaries, 

(a) V r e s i d i o s. 

Since the Moroccan wars and particularly those of the 16tli 
century, Spain has had the right to maintain garrisons (Presidios) 
on the North Coast of Morocco. Tlie necessity of maintaining them 
ed to the acquisition of small territories around the points of Ceuta, 

Count Kinsley: "The Diplomatist's Handbook for Africa". • 3 


^feUUa, Vclez ilc la Oonicra (Pehoii tie Volez) and Alhuccmas. 
Tliov were strongly fortified and received the official name of ''os 
presidios". Tlie i;-roni) of small ClHtfarimas Mauds also belong to 
tlie "Presidios", Nvhich comprise in all a snperficial area of 35 sq. km. 
The jxtpulation in 1887 was 5,280; according to other accounts 
10.000. The garrison consists of infantry regiments at Ceuta and 
]\Ielilla : at Ceuta there is also a body of 50 marines and a vo- 
lunteer force 100 strong. Ceuta, belonging to Cadiz, had in 1887 
10,744 inhabitants, Mehlla 3,538, Pefion 447, Alhucemas 366, the 
Chafarimas 703. 

In accordance with the treaty of Wad Pias of 1860 the Sultan 
of Morocco recognises the right of Spain to the possession of the small 
territory oi Santa Cruz de Mar Peqiiena, also called Ifni (70 sq. km., 
6000 inhabitants). South of Mogador on the mouth of the Ifni River. 
It was surrendered in due form in October 1883. Spain has hitherto 
enjoyed no advantage from this Possession, but holds it temporarily. 

(h) "Siihgoherrtorado" of Bh d'Oro. 

Dating Ijack to tlie period of the great Portuguese voyage of 
discovery is an old fortress, 23° 36' 18" North Latitude. During the 
time of the Spanish government over Portugal it fell into the 
hands of Spain, but in course of time it was almost abandoned. It 
bears the name Rio d'Oro (Gold River), in consequence of the custom of 
the Portuguese discoverers of bartei'ing for gold here with the Sahara 
caravans coming from the Niger territories. Starting from this point, 
Spain was gradually able to form a Protectorate out of the whole 
stretch of coast in the North above Cape Bojador, as far as Cape 
Juby, and in the South as far as Cape lilanco (Pahia del Oeste). 
The Bank of Arguin, however, was not included in this territory. 
The attempt of a German company in 1886 to erect a factory 
on the Rio d'Oro called forth a protest from Spain and an 
assertion of her rights, followed, on the 6th April, 1887, by a 


decree of the Spanish government, in which the district between 
Cape Blanco and Cape Bojador was declared to be Spanish territory. 
It w^as placed under the General-Captaincy of the Canary Islands 
as a ''subgobernorado". (Governor, a ''Subgobernador Politico-Militilr".) 

The Uled Embarek were placed under French protection on the 
14th May, 1887. In April, 1895, the Moorish tribes of Ulad Dim, 
Gerger and Ariissin stormed the Spanish fort. Captain M. E. Boretti 
had already explored the neighboring district, in consequence 
of a proclamation of Alfonso XII of December 26th 1884, placing 
this part of Africa under permanent Spanish rule. The '^Sociedad 
Espaiiola de Africanistas y Colonistas" was thus able to obtain 
540 km. of sea-coast. In 1886 it regulated the Southern frontier 
with France. A military garrison was established and the settle- 
ment, organised upon the plan prevailing in the Spanish colonies, 
was placed under the colonial ministry. In 1895, the tribes of the 
neighbouring Oasis territory and the Sahara of Adrar surrendered to 
the Spanish government. They solicited Spanish protection, and 
promised to respect the safety of Europeans. The disputed 
district of Adrar, or at least its Northern part, can therefore be 
rightly considered as under Spanish protection. No diplomatic 
settlement of the Adrar question has as yet taken place. Since Panet's 
journey in 1850, the French have also laid claim to Adrar. 

Area (700,000 sq. km.) 243,000 square miles ; 100,000 inhabi- 
tants (according to other sources 500,000). Chief Station, Rio d'Oro. 

(c) The Canary Islands (Mas Canarias). 

From an administrative point of view, the Canary Islands are 
considered as a part of the mother country, Spain. 7,373 sq. km. 
291,625 inhabitants, 40 to 1 th sq. km. In 1478 they were taken 
possession of by Spain, wliose rights have never been disputed. 
Capital, Santa Crm de Tenerife. 20,000 inhabitants. 


Official title, 


Madiira, tlu' Azoivs and Cape Verde 


TIn' Tslaiitls of Miulvira, the "richly wooded", and the Azores 
(Ulias Ai.oi't^^' i>i" "tlie Hawk Islands") are treated politically and ad- 
ministratively as an integral part of the mother countiy, Portngal. 
TJiv Islain/x of Madeira comprise 815 sq. km. (184-,000 inhabitants, 
l(i2 to 1 the sq. km.), and the Azores 2,388 sq. km., (269,401 inhabi- 
tants, 118 to 1 the sq. km.). The Portuguese took possession of Madeir 
in 1410. but did not colonise the islands until 1421, In the group 
are included Madeira, the Desertas, and Porto Santo. Capital: 
FfUichaL 20,000 inhabitants. The capital of the Azores, which were 
discovered and inhabited about the middle of the 15th century, is 
FoNta Delgada on the island Sao Miguel, with 18,000 inhabitants. 

The Illias do Caho Verde, discovered, 1455 — 1462, by the 
Portuguese Antonio da Noli, 3581 sq. km. with 110,930 inhabitants (20 
to the S([. km.), are divided into an Easterly and Westerly group. 
Unhealthy climate. Undisputed possession of Portugal since the earliest 
times. The largest island is Sao Thiago with 1239 sq. km. and 
53,000 inhabitants, on which is the capital, Cidade de Fraya, where 
the governor resides. 


Le Senegal et dependances, Senegamhie. 

Vf>^^eZl^in. France claims the whole of North AVest Africa to the South 

of the Spanish Protectorate of llio d'Oro and the Great Desert, 
also of the Senegal and Niger rivers, with the exception of the 


British possessions of Gambia, Sierra Leone, the Gold Coast, Portu- 
guese Guinea and the Liberian Republic, 4,000,000 sq. km. By the 
Treaty of the 5th August, 1800, England recognises the following 
frontiers of the territories under French influence in the North, 
South, East, and South East, viz., Algiers, Tunis (N), a line from 
Say on the Niger to Baruwa on the Tsad Lake (see Algiers) 
on the one side, and on the other a line as far South as the Upper 
Yolta in the North of Ashanti, whence it passes to the mouth 
of the Assinie. The colony on the Senegal embraces only the North 
West part of this vast territory as the direct Possession of the 
French Republic. It lies to the South, i. e., on the left bank of 
the river. The official frontier between the Senegal Colony and the 
French Soudan forms a line from Kayes to Bumtu on the Faleme, 
passing along the bed of this stream as far as the frontier of Futa 
Dshallon, and then along the Diankolo River, which is looked upon 
as a continuation of the Faleme. On the coast, the territory 
extends from the mouth of the Senegal to that of the Salum, 13" 
and 21" 40' North Latitude, a distance of 1200 km. ; and from the 
right bank of the Senegal to Arguin Bank near Cape Blanco. In 
the East the Colony extends from the valley of the Senegal to the 
Niger, i. e., as far as Segu Sikoro and Sansandig. It is scarcely 
possible to trace out an exact line of frontier for the Senegal Colony, 
owing to the circumstance that immediately adjoining the Senegal 
Colonial territory of the French Soudan (Soudan francais p. 23) and 
the possessions on the Ivory Coast (lUvieres du Sud), (which embrace 
a great number of French protectorate districts,) the French stations 
in the Senegal valley in the direction of Matam are each surrounded 
by an area not strictly defined, but passing as the direct and actual 
possession of the Republic. The natives, moreover, would not 
be likely to respect it, as the frontier line is subject to frequent 

The Senegal Colony embraces the communities of St. Louis, 
Dakar, Rufisquc, the Island Goree, the Arguin, Bank and Island 



till" i)roviiiii's NDiaiulor, Claiii;tuiiiiu'\ rankoy, in the Cayor district, 
I ho tiiritorios MTall, Kliateto. and the station ]>atete. 

Area. The Senegal (■olony, including that of the llivieres dii Sud, is 

o|m«ioii. ^_^.^^ ^^^ comprise 14.700 square miles and 174,000 to 200,000 inha- 
bitants, of whicli 1.^5,000 belong to Senegal alone. French West 
Africa has in all a total superticial area of 1,400,000 sq. km. 
Reckoning also the numerons small West-African States, ^Yhicll 
stretch from the Senegal River over Futa Dshallon (Guin6e Fran- 
Qaise) down to the Ivory Coast, and either form an integral part of 
the French Protectorate or are considered as such, the figures would 
be 54,000 square miles superficial area and 1,700.000 inhabitants 
(1807) for the whole territory. It should be here stated that some 
authoiities return the number of inhabitants of the Senegal Colony 
and the French Soudan in round numbers as 5 Millions. 

History. The Rivcr Senegal and the districts at its mouth are supposed 

to have been discovered by the French Normans, after they had 
been already visited by the Carthaguiians. The Portuguese appeared 
there in 1556, the first European settlement being formed in 1664. 

1664 — 1758, Establishment of French commercial houses on 
the Senegal. 

1758 — 1793, England annexes and occupies the Senegal Coast. 

176.3. The Senegal territory temporarily ceded, to England at 
the Peace of Paris; formally restored 20 years later. 

1793 and following years, state of anarchy. Disputes about 
possession. Wars with the natives. 

1817, France again definitely obtains the Senegal territory 
and remains henceforth in undisputed possession. 

1854, Faidherbe's appearance on the Senegal. War with the 
Trarzas and Hadsch Omar. The first French advance to Futa Dschallon. 

1860—1863, War with Cayor. Battle of Ngolgol, 30th Dec. 1863. 

1872 and following years. Galleni's, Archinard's, Combes', and 
Monteil's campaigns against the Dominions of Samory. 


1882, June 28th, Frontier treaty with England. 14th Sept. 
Protectorate over Bafing. 

1882 — 1891, Fifteen Treaties for the cession of territories con- 
ckided with native princes. 

1895, June 16th, Creation of the ''Gouvernement general de 
I'Afrique occidentale". 

Residence of the Governor-General, St. Louis, 20,000 inhabitants. varia. 

French Soudan. 

Le Soudan Fraurais. Official title 

Officially, this title comprises all the territories of the interior Frontiers, 
of West Africa which lie on the Upper Senegal and on the Upper 
and Middle Niger. Towards the North, the territory crosses into 
the great French Sphere of Interest of the West Sahara; in the 
West it borders on the Senegal Colony and the Guinee Frangaise, 
Sierra Leone, Liberia, and the Colony of the Rivieres du Sud. The 
East frontier is not exactly determined, but joins the boundary line 
of the French Sphere of Interest (from Say on the Niger to the 
Upper A'olta and the mouth of the Assinie). From 4'^ West Latitude 
of Greenwich, as far as the Western frontier of Sokoto, England, 
France, and Germany are each striving to augment their influence 
among the negroes, and protectorate or commercial treaties are being 
frequently concluded with native princes. Since the occupation of 
Timbuctoo by the French, the course of the Niger is no longer 
the North frontier of the French Soudan, which extends beyond the 
river into the Turag districts of the South Sahara. In this immense 
sphere of power a distinction is made officially between: 1. occupied; 
2. annexed; and 3. protected territories. For the official frontier 
between the French Soudan and the Senegal Colony, see page 21. 

Owing to the constant changes in area of the occupied territories. Area. 


it is difficult to give any reliable figures. The annexed territories, Divisions. 


Pi.ssessioM. mostly sitiiatea on tlie Upper Senegal (Kaarta, Bachimu, the Country 
of the rietl Eniharek, Bambuk, Fuladugu, Belcdugu, Bambara, Bondu, 
Futa Toro, FutaDsliallon, Tinibiictoo) arc held to contain 54,000 square 
miles and o()0,000 inhabitants; the protected territories (Massina, 
Segii, Sainory's and Tieba's Country, Jatenga, Aribinda, Kong) 
280,000 square miles and 3 million inhabitants (5 millions, including 
tlie Senegal Colony). Continual fighting takes place between the 
French troops and the natives, particularly with the Turaeg negroes 
in tlie Xi^'tli and the ]\Iadinka negroes in the South, whenever 
France attempts fresh occupation. The territories in dispute between 
France, Germany and England are in particular Gurma and Mossi 
(Muschi). It is not yet determined how far the j)oiver of the Sultan 
of Sokoto extends in the West. The petty princes declare it does 
not reach so far as this district ; consequently the conditions of the 
Anglo-Frencli treaty of the 5th August 1890 are not applicable 
to this part of Africa. To determine the sphere of power of Sokoto 
is a i)roblem which will require some time before it is practically 
and satisfactorily solved. 

1796, July 20th, Mungo Park arrives on the Niger. 
1827—1828, Rene Caillie's journey through the West Soudan 
and to Timbuctoo. 

1865, First French military campaign to the Soudan. 

1878 and following years, Gallieni's and Archinard's military 
expeditions to the Soudan. 

1880, Gallienis protectorate treaty with Ahmadu, which was 
not carried into effect. 

1881, July 14th, Futa Dshallon under French rule. 
1883 — 1885, Campaigns against Samory. 

1887, March 23rd, Samory under French protection. — April 
22nd Segu, Nioro, Kaarta ditto. 

1889, Captain Binger's advance on Kong. 

1890, Incorporation of the territory between Bassam and Liberia. 


1894, Taking of Tirabuctoo by the French. 

1895, June, 16th, Creation of the "Gouvernement general de 
TAfrique occideutale". 

1896, Hourst navigates the Niger. — The French occupy 
Wagadugii, the Capital of Mossi. 

The French Soudan is ruled by a military governor, who has Vaiia. 
his residence at Kayes, but who is subordinate to the governor- 
general of the Senegal Colony. 

French Guinea and the lyory Coast. 

Guinee Frangaise; Rivieres du Sud, Cote d'ivoire. Official title. 

French Guinea, which was separated from the Senegal Colony frontiers. 


on the 1st January 1890, includes the districts on the Casamanza 
(Casamence 11" — 9'^ North Latitude) together with the neighbouring 
Archipelago, with the exception of Los Islands, which are EngUsh ; 
further, the coast territory from the mouth of the River Nuiiez to 
the mouth of the Scarcies, together with the Interior, Futa Dshallon, 
bordering on the French Soudan, the frontiers of which are not 
yet determined. (Treaty ivlth England 28tli June 1882). For 
administrative purposes, the French Possessions on the Ivory Coast 
were included in this territory down to 1896, as also those on the 
Gold Coasts beginning on the coast at Cape Palmas at the mouth 
of the St. Pietro Pdver, and extending as far as the mouth of the 
Assiuie River (Grand Bassam, Grand Lahou, Jackville), including the 
Interior with undefined frontiers. (Treaty ivitli England 10th Aiigust 
1894.) This territory is called Rivieres du Sud (formerly Bas de Cote). 

The district on the Casamanza contains 15,000 sq. km. ; (Guinee Area. 


Francaise, 150,000 sq. km.), with 103,000 inhabitants (Guinee 
Franc^aise, 500,000 [200 Europeans]). The Rivieres du Sud include 
about 25,000 square miles with a fluctuating population of about 

Count Kinsky: "The Dii)loiiiati8t'8 Handbook for Africa". 4 







200,000. Of eoiivse, only tlie inhabited stretch of coast is here 
taken into acc(unit, as tlie area and popnlation of the Interior 
horderiiiii' on the Froncli Siuidan (Koni;' and I'.eledugu) do not appear 
to ho dctoiinined. 

Tho wliolc country on the Casamanza is the immediate possession 
of France. The governor of French Guinea also exercises authority 
over Fiita Dshallon. Outside the coast territories of the llivieres 
du Slid. i. 0.. in the Interior the protectorate of France is con- 
stantly extending. 

Since the middle of the 15th century, the Portuguese have traded 
towards the Casamanza, where the British have several times tried to 
obtain a firm footing, but without success. 

1828, France occupies the Island Djogue at the mouth of the 

1836 — 1837, The French occupy the islands Carabane and 
Guimbering at the mouths of the Casamanza and Cacheo, and found 
the station Sedhiu on the main-land. 

1868, February 4th, Treaty with Beriby and Basha (ratified 
20th December 1883). 

1883, December 16th, A French resident appears at Assinie, 
although the F'rench troops had been withdrawn from the garrison 
in 1870, since which time the coast was guarded l)y the employes 
of the firm Yerdier et de la Rochelle. The French, however, always 
retained protectorate rights. 

1884, Bouet Willaumez's treaty with the chiefs of the Ivory 
coast of Assinie, Grand Bassam, and Dabii. 

1885, Decemher 24th, Convention hetween France, rortiujal and 
Germany, by which the territories of Kaba and Kabitai, which 
Germany had occupied betw^een Compony and Mellacoree, were 
restored to France. 

1886, May 12th, Convention hetiveen Portugal and France 
(ratified 31st August 1887j which fixed the present frontiers of the 


territories on the Casamanza, aud by which France ceded the terri- 
tories of the Rio Cassini and Ziquincior to Portugal. 

1889, August 10th, Frontier Regulation with England. Sepa- 
ration of the colony from the Senegal. 

1891, France occupies the last unoccupied stretch of coast 
South of the Liberian frontier. 

1893, March 10th, Organisation of the colonies : (1) La Guinee 
fran^aise; (2) Cote d'ivoire; (3) Dahomey. 

1895, Jamianj 21d, Convention bekveen France and England 
relating the frontier line. — 15th June. Constitution of the 
"Gouvernement general de I'Afrique occidentale". 

1896, March 16th. Organisation of a judicial autonomy for 
French Guinea. 

The governor of ''Guinee franqaise" has his residence at Conakry 
on Tombo Island ; the governor of the Ivory Coast at Grand Bassam. 

Portuguese Guinea or Portuguese 

Guinea Vurtiigueza, Senegambia Fortugueza. 

This embraces the territory between the basin of the Casamanza 
and that of the Cassini. The North frontier forms the watershed 
between the Casamanza and the Cacheo, the South frontier a line 
from the Channel between Catak Island, at the mouth of the 
Cassini, and the mainland, and from Tristao, at the mouth of the 
Compony, running thence to the middle of the course of the Cassini, 
and finally crossing this river as well as the Rio Grande, to the west of 
the junction of the Combia. The two frontier lines meet at the 
Geba Springs (Treaty with France 12th May 1880). 



Official title. 











Tlk' (livtiiit also iMiibraiH's tlio Bissagos Archipelago, 30 islands, 
tlu> largest ot" \\lii(li is ()rango. 

riu" siipriticial area is fVom IW,!)!)!), to 42,000 S(i. km.; but 
only about 7"J sq. km. are occupied. Scattered settlements cover 
a surface of 10,000 sq. km. 

The i)opulation is estimated on the undetermined colonised area. 
The figures therefore differ, varying as they do between 150,000 
aiul 800.000 (the latter from English sources, 1885). 

In theory, direct possession; in reality not to be distinguished 
from a protectorate. 

Portugal settled here in the middle of the 15tli century. 

1692. Andr^ Brue landed 275 British colonists here; the 
greater number succumbed to the climate, whereupon England withdrew 
all claim to possession. 

1870. Decision of the President of the U. S. A., as arbiter, 
in favour of Portugal. 

1885. May 15tli. Regulation of the present Northern frontier 
on the basis of a Treaty with France^ which however was not ratified 
until August 1887. 

Residence of the governor, Boldma (Bulam). 

British Possessions in West -Africa. 

Official title. West-Afr'ican Colonies (formerly West-African Settlements). 

Divisions. The British possession in "West-Africa consists of 4 crown 

colonies: Gambia, Sierra Leone, Gold Coast, and Lagos. 


(a) G a m b i a. 

The Gambia Colony embraces the territory at the mouth of 
the Gambia River., viz., the island Santa Maria, 13° 28' North 
Latitude, with Combo and Punta Barra on the right bank of the 
river, and the Bank d'Albreda, San Giacamo, P^lephant and Mac 
Carthy Islands with the corresponding river banks. The present frontiers 
were agreed upon between the French and British Governments by 
the Treaty of the lOtli August {2\\([ and 19th Nov.) 1889. Accor- 
dingly, Georgetown on the Gambia forms the most easterly point of the 
British territory. The superficial area amounts to about 7000 sq. km. 
(2700 square miles), the inhabitants to 50,000. The so-called ''settle- 
ment proper" contains only 69 square miles with 14,978 inhabitants 
(1894); the remainder is a Sphere of Interest. Since 1821 the 
British have been in undisputed possession of the colony. Previously 
however, the Portuguese, French, Dutch and Spanish were in posses- 
sion. Gambia was separated from Sierra Leone for administrative 
purposes on the 1st December 1888. 

Capital : St. Mary of Bathiirst, 6000 inhabitants. 

(b) Sierra Leone. 

This colony extends 180 English miles along the coast from the 
Scaries River in the North to the Liberian frontier in the South, em- 
braces the island Sherbro and Cape Mount, has about 39,000 
or L5,000 square miles and 180,000 inhabitants, including about 
300 whites. The North frontier was defined in detail by a Treaty 
between France and England of the 2Stli June, 1882 (adopted by the 
French Chamber 1894) and the Southern frontier on the basis of 
one betiveen England and Liberia of the 11th January, 1887. By a 
Treaty of 21st January, 1895, only the Northern frontier alone was 
revised by an Anglo-French Frontier Regulation Commission; but 
the details of it have not yet been recognised by the powers. The cause of 


this rovision was a still valid treaty with France, giving the latter 
the liuht to annex territories on the Upper Niger. 

Tlu' territory was first visited by the Carthaginians. They 
were followed by I'rench mariners from Dieppe in the 15th century, 
who settled here, after which the rortuguese took possession. In 1787 
it was ceded to England by native chiefs. In 1800 to 1808, a British 
trading company occupied the territory, and eight years later trans- 
ferred their rights to the British Government. 18G1, the Island 
Sherbro was sold to England by the native chiefs; 1883, consi- 
derably extended. Sierra Leone contains 4000 square miles and 
(1891) 74,835 inhabitants, including 224 whites. Separated from 
Gambia for administrative purposes on 1st December 1888. 

Capital: Freetown, 30,033 inhabitants. 

(c) Gold Coast. 

The British Colonies on the Gold Coast, Appolonia, Vassao, 
Krikor, Denkera, Sefui, Akim, Croboe, Crepi, Akw^ama, Cape Coast 
Castle, Elmina, Axim, Accra, Adda, Winnebac, Quitta, Dixcove, 
Secomdi, Anamaboe, embrace 350 miles of coast on the Gulf of Guinea 
between 5'^ West and 2'^ East Longitude from Greenwich together 
with the Interior, the limits of which have not yet been determined. 
An agreement tvas come to ivlth France concerning the course of 
the Western frontier as far as 10'' North Latitude in July 1893, and 
ivith Germany and England on the 1st July 1890 with reference to 
the Eastern frontier, which from the 7" North Latitude and beyond is 
not yet determined. The Northern frontier in no way defines the limits 
of the Soudanese districts of Mossi and Gurma, as the upper course 
of the Volta is not yet exactly known, while Great Britain is engaged 
in extending her sphere of interest by the conclusion of protectorate 
and commercial treaties. In 1896 the King of Ashanti placed himself 
under British protection. 


The area of the territory claimed by Great Britain is given 
as 120,000 sq. km., the population (1891) 1,473,882 (150 whites). 
15,000 square miles form direct possession, the frontiers of this terri- 
tory being constantly extended. 46,600 square miles (1895) belong 
to the protectorate. 

It is alleged that mariners from Dieppe landed on the Gold 
Coast as early as 1365. 1610, the Portuguese took possession and 
inhabited the territory. 1616, the Dutch ceded to England, by the 
treaty of Breda, the land which had been gradually gained, and two 
private trading companies undertook the opening up of this rich 
district, in order to surrender it in 1821 to the British government, 
which for administrative purposes incorporated it to Sierra Leone. 
1824, commencement of the war with the barbarian state of the 
Ashantis, in which the Fantis w^ere England's allies. 1837, Dutch 
Embassy sent to the Court of Ashanti. 1850, England buys the 
fortresses of Accra and Quitta from Denmark for 250,000 francs. 
1867 and 1871, Holland sells the remainder of its possessions on 
the Gold Coast (tracts on the Sweet Biver) to England. 1873, 
England's war with Ashanti; battles of Essaman, Iskobio, Amaoful, 
Becquah, Ordashu and Coomassi. 1874, February 4th, Taking and 
burning of Coomassi. 1895 — 1896, Third military expedition against 
Ashanti and submission of king Prempeh, who places himself under 
English protection. Since 15th of Jan., 1886, independent government. 

Capital: Accra, 16,267 inhabitants. 

(d) L (Iff s. 

The island and town of Lagos on the Slave Coast from Badagry 
to Lekke are the actual possession of England. The British Protecto- 
rate extends between the 2" and 6" East Longitude of Greenwich 
(Treaty tvith France, 20tli Aug. 1889) "for some distance inland", a 
definition which distinctly shows the undetermined nature of the 
frontiers. In consequence of the war against Yoruba (with Abeokutta, 


.Ibtulan and Ogboiiiotsho) in ] 893— 1894, and tlie Jebii, the British 
protec'torato was also extended over tliis tliickly-populated dominion. 
The I'ritisli also claim l^orgu for the protectorate. 

Accord/ttf/ fo s/irrci/s, the island and the protectorate contain 
1(^71 square miles or 2770 sq. km.; with 100,000 inhabitants. 
\ oruba included, the British territory embraces 20,070 square miles 
or 51.800 s(i. km. and 3 million inhabitants (150 whites). 

Lagos was an ancient slave market. 1852, England concluded 
a treaty with King Dotschemo, resulting in the abolition of the 
slave trade, and the establishment of the British Protectorate. 

1862, March 3rd, Annexation of Lagos, and connection of the 
colonies for administrative purposes with Sierra Leone. 

1874, July 24th, Lagos placed under the Governor of the 
Oold Coast. 

1883, Extension of the Colony. 

1886, January 15th, Independent government. 

1892 — 1895, Campaigns against the Egba and Jebu. 

Capital: Lagos (the African Liverpool) 60,000 inhabitants. 


Official titi. (.yiifed States of Liheria. 

Kiutitiors. ^]^g territory of the Republic extends along the Atlantic coast 

from Cape Mount, near Bobert's-Port, to the mouth of the St. Pietro 
(630 km.). The frontier towards Sierra Leone was separately dctined 
in a Treahj with England 24tli Bee. 1885 and 11th Nov. 1887; 
and that bordering on French territory in a Treatg with Franee, 
8 Dec- 1892 and August 1804. It stretches into the Mandinka 




Countries almost as far as Musardu, and is therefore, on the average 
more than 300 km. distant from the sea. 

The superficial area amounts to 85,350 sq. km. or 14,360 square Area, 

Population, 1,068,000; (according to earlier estimates, 760,000 Population 
to 2 millions), of which 18,000 are Americo-Liberians. 

The territory comprises four states viz : Mesurado, Grand Bassa, 
Sinu and Maryland. A Sphere of Interest or Protectorate does not exist. 

1815, Arrival in Sierra Leone of the first emancipated negroes 
from Massachussetts. 

1820, P'ounding of the American Colonisation Society for the 
settlement of emancipated negroes from America, which formed the 
first colony in Liberia. 

1822, The whole colony declares itself an independent and 
free republic. Government formed in 1847. 

1857, Union of the Maryland territory with the Republic. This 
territory was founded by TJie Maryland Colonisation Society in 1834. 
Lately, the American negroes have flocked back to Africa in large 
numbers, for the purpose of the repatriation of the negro race, a move- 
ment which is being zealously advocated in the U. S. A. 

Capital, Monrovia (5000 Inhabitants in 1891): the seat of the, Varia. 
Government, which is based on that of the U. S. A. 


. Protectorate of the German Empire (Schutzgebiete des Deutschen official title. 
Reiches) : Togoland. 

This part of the Slave Coast is bounded on the West (1° 14' Frontiers. 
Longitude East of Greenwich) by the British Gold Coast Colony, 
on the East (1" 41' Longitude East of Greenwich) by French 
Dahomey. In the North and North West, the frontiers are not yet 
defined, but the North-West frontier is held to extend from Lome 

Count K i u s k y, "The Diplomatist'H Handbook for Africa". 5 


to tlu> lOtlshie and XOlta, tlie course of>Yhich it follows. Germany's 

iiitoiition is to advance as far as the Niger. Lengtli of coast, 52 km. 

Aiva. About 76,000 sq. km.. \\)XM) S(iuare miles, according to English 

estimates. As far as tlie 9" North Latitude, only 60,000 sq. km. 

I'opniatio... About 2 Millions. Only 800,000, according to English figures. 

S9 Kuroju'ans. of which 81 (1897) are Germans. 

divisions. r„o,) pi-oper, North of the Avon Lagoon, forms the heart of 

the land inhabited by the Ewe tribes; to this must be added 
Little Popo, ceded by France to Germany with the Interior (Adeli 
districts), in December 1885. The most important stations in the 
Interior are Bismarckburg and Misahohe. 

Possession. Actual possession on the coast: Protectorate in the Interior. 

History. Discovered in the 16th century. — 1682, the Great Elector 

established colonies at Aneho (Gross Friedrichsburg), which however 
were broken up in 1718, having proved a commercial failure. 
1720, The Dutch took the fortress Gross Friedrichsburg. 

1884, July 15th, The country on the coast placed under German 
protection by the German Consul-General, Dr. Gustav Nachtigal, 
by desire of certain commercial houses in Bremen and Hamburg. 
Protectorate treaty with the King of Togo. 

1885, Dec. 24tlh France cedes Little Popo to Germany in accor- 
dance with Treaty. 

1888, Treaty of neutrality relating Salaga. Germany's priority 

1894, Fergusson tries to acquire Salaga for England. 

1894_1895. Expeditions, Gruner, Doring, Carnap. Treaties with 
Goorma, Mangol, Dagomba, Tshantyoan, Gando. 

1896, September 1st, The French occupy Wagadugu. 

1897, May 24th — July 26th, Conference between France and 
Germany relating to the hinterland of Togo. 

Tiraties The East (Treaty of 1888, unpublished) and the North frontiers 

Hejli'iia t'ion>. Were regulated by the Anglo-German Treaty of Oct. 29th (1st Nov.) 

^•al•ia. 2S86, and the AVest frontier by the Franco-German treaty of the 


1st July, 1890. (Lome, Todshie River — Volta River). The territory 
is under the control of an Imperial Governor- General. Seat of 
government, Sebhe\ since 1897 Lome (2084 inhabitants, 31 Europeans). 


Baliomey — Pays de protector at de Dahomey et dependances. Official title. 

According to the Anylo-French treaty of tJie 10th August 1889, Fi-onticrs. 
German Togoland (1"41' Longitude East of Greenwich) forms the 
West frontier, and Jorubaland (course of the Addo) the East 
frontier. The North frontier is by no means defined. It lies probably 
between 6" 14' 15" and 6» 23' 51" N. Lat. 

The superficial area cannot be given in exact figures. According Area, 
to English estimates there are about 4000 square miles. The 
French calculation gives (1897): 40,000 sq. km. without new 
territorial acquirements. 

The population, according to English authorities, is 730,000, viz., Poimiation. 
Dahomey 150,000, Grand Popo 100,000, Mains and Ajada 150,000, 
Porto Novo 150,000, Abeokutta 120,000, Ogbomotsho 60,000. 
About 1 Million, however, would be nearer the mark. According 
to the French: "300,000 habitants pacifies aujourd'hui (1897)." 

The French colonies on the Gold Coast, called Benin, consisted Divisions. 


of Grand Fopo, Ague, and I'orto Novo (Agiuda, also Ajuda or 
Glehue), also called after the capital, Whydah or AVeyda (Uida). 
Since the 15th Jan. 1894, two French vassal kingdoms took the 
place of the old barbarian dominion of Dahomey, viz., Abome in the 
North and Allada in the South. Each had its own king, who was 
virtually a vassal of France. Their successors must receive the 



saiu'tioii of tho FriMuh. win. have abolislied the former human 
sacritioes. A French resident minister lives in Abomt^. France has 
introdiued tVet> tra(U\ and has the right to hiiild railways and 
telegrai)lis in both kingdoms and to establish schools. 

History. (iraitd Voi'o and A(fi((' wQi'Q from the earliest times the coast asylum 




lor the refugees from Dahomey. 1871, Expulsion of the FAiropeans. 

1883, French Protectorate over Grand and Little Popo; April, 
1885, over Ague. 

1885, Little Popo ceded to Germany. 

Forfo Novo became a state in the 18th century at the time of 
the founding of the town, Hombonu (Agiashe or Little Adra) under 
King Allada or Adra. 

1861, Bombardment of Porto Novo by the English, whereupon 
the king seeks Erench protection. F'rance occupies the capital, 
but evacuates it soon afterwards. 

1882, France reclaims the old Protectorate rights and again 
occupies Porto Novo and Kotonu. 

Dahomey became a state in the first half of the 17th century 
(Capital, Savi or Xavier in Agiuda), destroyed the rival and neigh- 
bouring state, Allada, in 1724. Portugal has a resident-consul in 

1876, English campaign against Dahomey. 

1883, July 19th, French Protectorate over Porto Seguro, Ague, 
Grand Popo. July 25th, Protection treaty with Porto Novo. 

1885, June 10th, Watshi (North of Ague) under French 
protection. — December 24th, Treaty re the West frontier. — 
August 5th, Protectorate treaty with Dahomey, which, however, is not 
recognised by Portugal. 

1887, Dec. 22th, Portugal renounces the Protectorate taken over 
on the 5th of August 1885, and merely retains certain commercial 


1889, August 10th, Decision concerning regulation of the Eas- 
tern frontier (Lagos); October 3rd, Treaty relative to Porto Novo and 
Kotonu, the latter being occupied by France. 

1890, French campaign against Dahomey. 

1894, French campaign and conquest of Dahomey. January 25th, 
Subjection of King Behanzin. 

1895, Organisation of the colony: Divided into two States, 
dependent upon France. 

1896. September 1st, France occupies Wagadugu. 

1897. July 26th, Arrangement between France and Germany 
relating to Goorma and Sansane-Mangu. 

Seat of the French resident, Abome and Porto Novo (Cotonou) Varia. 
residence of one of the kings, Kelmina (Kana). 

Niger Coast Protectorate. 

Niger Coast Frotedorate. Official title. 

This territory is not to be confounded with the British Niger 
territories. (See p. 38.) It includes the whole coast line between 
Lagos and Cameroon, with the exception of the tract between For- 
cados and the Brass Rivers, which belongs to the Niger territories, 
besides the possessions of the African Association founded in 1889 
in the Oil River district. 

The frontier begins (1896) on the seacoast, 10 miles North Frontiers. 
West of the Benin River, extends along tliis river as far as Lagos 
Creek, and then follows and includes the general frontier of the 
Benin territories, following the Forcados River to Gana, excending 
10 miles towards the North East, and 50 towards the North. The 
Eastern frontier begins between Nun and Brass at the mouth of the 
Niger begins towards the East, and extends towards Idu to the 
Oratsghi or Aegenni River. According to the statement of tlie Im- 
perial Commissioner and Consul General, "these boundaries are 


subject to iiKuliticatioii acconliug to local nMiuireineiits." The frontier- 
line toNvards Cameroon extends from tlie commencement of the Rio 
(lol Key rstuary to the rapids of the River Cross (9" 1' North Latitude), 
and thence "to a point East of Y(dii on the Benue River.^' Us 
details lire therefore uncertain. 

Area. At present nothing definite can be said concerning the area 

and population. 

Divisions. Tlie coast of the territory was discovered by the Portuguese at 

rossossioii. ^j^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^j^^ -^-^j^ century, but for three centuries it was only 

sparsely colonised. 

History. 1854. Baikie's expedition up the Niger. The origin of the hrst 

British settlement on the Niger River. 

1884, Jnly, Declaration of the British Protectorate by Consul 
Hewett, after he had concluded treaties with the chiefs in consequence 
of Germany's acquisition of the Cameroon district. 

1886, July, Issue of the Niger Company's charter. 

1891, Transference of government to the Imperial Commissioner 
and Consul-General, with administrative and judicial power. Six vice- 
consnls, under the Consul-General, are stationed along the rivers. 
The Consul-General has no fixed residence. 

Niger Territories. 

Offifiai I if If. Niger Territories. 

V I imiii r» 

Not to be confounded with the Niger Coast Protectorate 
(see p. 36). The English territory of the so-called Royal Niger 
Company — founded in 1879 as the United African Company, re- 
named the National African Company, 1882 — lies to the North of 


the Niger Coast Protectorate. By the terms of the Anglo-French 
Agreement of the 5th of Angtist 1890, the frontier between the English 
and French Spheres of Interest in tlie Niger Territory is a straight 
hne from tlie town Say on tlie Niger to Barua (Baruwa) on the 
Tsad Lake, "drawn in such a mannei- as to comprise within the" 
"sphere of the Niger Company all that which fairly belongs to the" 
"kingdom of Sokoto, the line to be determined by commissioners to" 
"be appointed." By the terms of the Anglo-German Agreement of 
the 2ml August 1886, the East frontier of the territory extends from 
a point on the River Cross about 9" 8' East Latitude of Green- 
wich, and appears to be marked on the British Admiralty Chart 
as "Rapids," to the point on the Bennue "three miles below the 
centre of the main mouth of the River Faro," about 30 miles East 
of Yola, and from this ])oint to the shore of the Tsad Lake, 
0"35' East of the Meridian of Kuka, the capital of Bornu. (Anglo- 
German treaty, Nov. loth 1893.) 

The whole territory of the British Protectorate is estimated at Area. 
500,000 square miles. 

The population amounts to 20 — 35 millions. Popwiation. 

The greater part embraces the dominion of the Fuldn or Divisions. 
Felldtah of Sokoto, whose vassal is the Sultan of Gando, the 
greatest of the Fellatah chiefs. How far the territory of the 
"Em2)eror of Sokoto", as he is called by the English, extends, and 
which of the chiefs towards the West recognise his authority, is very 
uncertain. The Sokoto territories are usually said to contain 
219,500 square miles and 15 millions inhabitants. The reigning Sultan 
of Sokoto transferred the rights of civil, criminal, and fiscal juris- 
diction over foreigners to the Royal Niger Company. Among the chiefs 
of the provinces belonging to Sokoto, there is a sort of Lieutenant- 
Governor of the Sultan of Sokoto. These officials attend to the 
payment of the tribute, and are in regular communication with the 


"Kmpeior". Tlie ofticials of the Royal Niger Company have 
coiicludeil a series of special treaties ("alternative treaties") with 
tlie chiefs or "vassal kings" of tlie various provinces. To the 
Niger territories in the West on the right bank of the Niger belongs, 
besides Sokoto, Ihrf/H or liftssauf/, which borders upon Dahomey 
in tlie Nortli and Admnmi in the Soutli East. The Capital of Sokoto 
is at present Wurm (15,000 inhabitants). 

History. The earliest relations of England with the tract embracing the 

I'"''"I''''" nresent Niger territories date from 1822 and the following years, 
i:..-uiiition. Lieutenant Clapperton reaching Sokoto in 1825 and remaining there 
till 1827. 

Igg4_1885. J. Thomson's treaties with the Sultans of Sokoto 
and Gando. 

1885, May 7th. The South East frontier regulation with Germany. 

1886, July 10th. Granting of the Boyal Charter to the National 
Africa Company Limited, founded in 1882, and which henceforth 
called the Boyal Niger Company Chartered and Limited, capital 
1 million /. 18th October 1887. Extension of these rights. 
From 1883—1886, the Company concluded about SOO treaties 
with the potentates of the Niger territories in Sokoto and Gando, 
from which they derive their present rights of possession. 

1880. A French commercial company tried to compete with 
the British on the Niger, but received so little support from France 
that they were compelled to abandon their project, the British 
company having already in 1884 a Niger flotilla of 25 steamers 
and a considerable capital. Since then Great Britain has endeavoured 
to firmly establish herself on the middle Niger and in the Bennue 
districts, despite the simultaneous attempts of France and Germany 
in this direction on the ground that the territory "Sokoto" is in- 
determinable. In accordance with the terms of the Berlin Treaty 
of the 26th of Fehrtiary 1885, the navigation on the Niger is free. 


1896, January 15tli. Franco-English Convention. 

Capital: Asaha. The military head quarters is at Lokodja ^'aiia. 
(Lokoja). Government by a "Civil Council" in London. 

The Independent States of Central- 

Tshad Lake Countries. 

There is no general official title. 

In England, the Tsad Lake State, Bornu, is looked upon as 
the principal of the Independent States of the Central- Soudan ; then 
come Wadai, Kanem and Baghirmi, all bordering on the Tshad 
Lake. The political frontiers of these States are undefinable. 

As regards Bornu, this state belongs, in accordance with the 
Agreement of the 5th August, 1890, and the Anglo-German treaty of 
the loth Novemher, 1893, to the British Sphere of Interest. The state 
contains has about 50,000 square miles area and about 5 million in- 
habitants. The Soudan conqueror, Rabah, an officer of Ziber Pasha 
from the Egyptian Soudan, governs the land as Mai or Sultan. 
Capital: Kuka (Kukaua), 50,000 to 60,000 inhabitants. By the 
terms of the Anglo-French Agreement of 1893, Bornu is, accor- 
ding to the English official statements, excluded from the sphere 
of France and Germany. 

Wadal is at present the most powerful state on the Tshad 
Lake. Even the celebrated conqueror Kabah could not subjugate it. 
The area amounts to 172,000 square miles with about 2 million in- 
habitants. Kanem on the North-East side of Tshad (30,000 square miles, 
10,000 inhabitants, capital, Mao, where the authorised agent of 

Count Kinsky. "The Diplomatist's Handbook for Africa". " 


Wadai resides), is tributary to Wadai, as is also Banli'nini. which 
was recently recoiKiiiered after Rahah had deemed it expedient 
to retire towards Bornu, and leave the occupied country, 

Tlie country has a superficial area of about 20,000 square miles 
and 71,000 inhabitants: and borders on the Tshad Lake, the German 
possession of Cameroon, the French colony of Haul Ubangi, and in 
tlie l^ast on AVadai. The suzerainty of Wadai was recognised by 
the Sultan of the country (then residing at Massenja) as early 
as 1871. 

As far as the right of possession is concerned, the Tshad Lake 
territory is a district of Africa over which there has been much 
dispute, and the order maintained there at present is not likely to 
last long. In course of time two points with reference to possessory 
rights came to the front: 1. Germany endeavoured to touch the Tshad 
Lake shore from Cameroon across the Bennue, and attained her 
object by an Agreement with England in 1890 and 1893 and with 
France in 1894. 2. France attained, over the basin of the Tshad 
Lake, as it is technically expressed in France, 'Ma reunion sur les 
rives du lac Tshad des possessions Fran^aises du Soudan, de I'Algerie 
et du Congo Fran^ais," which even in France itself was considered 
as Utopian as late as 1890. The Convention hetiveen the English 
Niger Conqmny and Germany of 15th November 1893, secured the 
East of the Tshad Lake territory as far as Dar Fur to the latter, 
wliich security has naturally a theoretical value only. In consequence 
of i\\& Franco-German Convention of the 4thFehruary and 15th March, 
1894, Germany was granted an advantage not less theoretical in 
being allowed access from Cameroon to the shores of the Tshad Lake. 
In the same convention of the 4th February, 1894, France also suc- 
ceeded in reaching the Tshad Lake ; Germany, however, also reached 
the Sanga Valley and consequently the Congo. To all appearances, 
France has gained the greatest advantage, having not only right of 
access to the Tshad Lake along the Shari, but also to Mayo Kebbi 


and thereby ''par Benoiie", as it is called, to the Niger, on which 
navigation is free. It is however doubtful whether Turkey will be 
able to reach the Tshad Lake across the Eastern Sahara. Doubtless 
England will in future reach the Tshad Lake either across the 
dominion of the Mahdi along the Nile, or from the East African 
side (Ibea, which see) and thus endeavour to connect her West 
African with her East African possessions and the Nile Countries 
across the Tshad Lake. 


Protectorate of the German Empire (Schutzgebiete des deutschen Official title. 
Reiches) .• Kamerun. 

The Western frontier runs (see p. 39, Niger Territories) in accor- Frontiers, 
dance with the Convention with England of the 14th April, 1893, 
from the right bank of the Calabar River (9" 8' East Longitude of 
Greenwich, "Ethiopian Rapids") towards the North East in a straight 
line direct to Yola in Adamawa (30 miles East of this town lies the 
boundary point, at present in British possession). Thence it runs to a 
point situated on the left shore of the Bennue, which lies 5 km below 
the principal mouth of the River Frao, afterwards taking a straight 
course to Ngala on the South border of Tshad Lake. The coast line 
is 198- 1 km, in length, and extends from theCampo River orEtembue, 
2° 14' North Latitude, to Rio del Rey, 4" North Latitude. The 
Southern frontier extends in a straight line from the mouth of the 
Campo River to the 15"^ East Longitude of Greenwich (Agreement 
between France ami Germany, 24th December, 1885). The Eadcrn 
frontier follows roughly speaking the 15" Longitude East of Greenwich 
(along the Logone to the Point T^am^ and thence to Biafara on the 
Mayo Kebu [Benue]), to the shore of the Tshad Lake. The Franco- 
German convention of the 15th of March (4th of February) 1894 regu- 



lates this frontier in dotail. and allows Germany to share the 
upper course of the Sanga River, and consequently to have 
access to the Congo T.asin. It is further due to this Convention that 
tlie Northoiu frontier partly follows the course of the Shari. Germany 
has thus an interest in the Shari (Logoue) basin. Special treaties ivith 
EmjJamh Apr'd .l"Jth ami Mai/ 7th, 1885; July 27tli and August 2nd, 

Aioa. The area amounts to 495,000 sq. km. or about 200,000 square 

miles, according to British estimates. 

I'Mpuiatio,,. Topulation: 2,500,000. 1897 about 236 Europeans, of which 

161 are Germans and 36 English; according to Englisli estimates, 
about 4,570,000 inhabitants. 

Divisions. The provinces belonging to this Protectorate are chiefly Cameroon 

Po^^sessiun. .^g^j^ ^^j.^j^^ camarao, said to be the name of a small kind of crab), 
Batanga with the Kribi Station and Lolodorf, Tibati's dominion and 
the greater part of Adamawa, together with the districts of the Mendif 
mountain on the South shore of the Tshad Lake. (The official title- 
deed says ''Schutzgebiet" (Protectorate). 

History. Discovered by the Portuguese in the 15th Century. The coast of 

Treaties. Q^jj^gj-Q^ji remained uninhabited for a long time. Later, British 

missionaries settled there, and were followed by traders from most 

of the sea-faring nations. Manifold disputes ensued among Hamburg 

firms, French in Batanga and English as to possession. 

1861, Ptichard Burton's and Gustav Mann's journeys in Cameroon. 

1871 and following years. Buchholz, Reichenow and Luehder 
in Cameroon and Calabar territories. 

1877, Ross, Grenfell and T. J. Comber's explorations in Cameroon. 

1884, Rear- Admiral Kuorr lands with 185 soldiers, captures 
Fetishtown and Hickorytown and subjugates the chief, Bell. — 
July 14th, Dr. Gustav Nachtigal placed the possessions of the Hamburg 
firms under German protection. 


1885, January, German flag hoisted in Batauga. — May 7th, 
Treaty with England about tlie Northern frontier and again August 
2ud, 1886, and July 1st, 1890. 

1887, March 29, Ambas Bay and Victoria handed over to Germany. 

1885—1896, The journeys of the explorers, R. Flegel, Kund, 
Tappenbeck, Kling, v. Stetten, Dr. Zintgraff, Lieutenant Morgen 
Baron von Uechtritz, Dr. Passarge and others led to an extension 
of the possessions in the Interior. 

The protectorate is ruled by an Imperial Governor, who also Varia. 
governs Togoland administratively and judicially, and has his residence 
at Cameroon. Missionary station : Victoria. 

Spanisli Possession in the 
Gulf of Guinea and on the Gaboon. 

In the Gulf of Guinea, Spain possesses the Islands, Fernando 
Fo, 1998 sq. km., 25,000 inhabitants, 13 to the sq. km., and AnnoUn 
("Good Year", 17 sq. km., 3000 inhabitants, 176 to the sq. km.) of 
which the former was discovered by the Portuguese in 1471, and 
the latter on New Year's Day 1498 by Juan de Santaren. Both 
islands were ceded to Spain in 1778. 

Since the 1st of March 1843, Spain has laid claim to the so-called 
Corisco Bay with the islands, Corisco and Elohy, at the mouth of 
the Muni and Campo, and a small part of the adjoining territory, 
Han Juan. Corisco island has an area of 14 scj. km. ; the whole of 
the territory claimed by Spain, 2200 S(i. km. (according to English 
estimate, 150 square miles), with 30,000 inhabitants. The Spaniards 
claim the right to trade with this territory. 


I'laiicc is tho only loiuitry wliich recognises the Spauisli claim to 
the wliolo tonitory. S]);uii Iiowi'Vlm- lays exclusive claim to a i)art 
o( the tenitin-y not recognised by France, from the Cape Santa Clara 
to the Interior, of about nO^OOO sq. km. (British estimates, ()9,()00 
S(iuare miles) with a poi)ulation of 500,000, which was acquired 
by t/ic fmifics with the chiefs, OafAjher 1884. Indeed, at one 
time, Spain was believed to lay claim to 150,000 sq. km. in this 
part of Africa. The point remains unsolved. — The territory 
is administratively connected with Fernando P6. 

Portup'iiese Possession in the Gulf 
of Guinea. 

Since the glorious times of Portuguese discovery in the 15th 
century, Portugal has possessed St. Thomas Island in the Gulf of 
Guinea {EJia de Sao Thome, 929 sq. km., 18,000 inhabitants [1895, 
presumably 20,000], or 20 to the sq. km.) and the Princes Island 
{Hha do Principe, 151 sq. km., 3000 inhabitants, 19 to the sq. km.). 
According to British estimates a total surface of only 454 square 
miles and 21,040 inhabitants. This estimate however, dating from 
the years 1878—1879, is too low. 

French Conpfo. 

.Mfiriai title. Congo Francais (France Equatoriale, first part), and Haul 

Uhangui (second part). 
Fr..ntiei-. ^he French possession on the coast of Lower Guinea, bordering in 


the south on the German protectorate (Convention 24th December 1885) 
embraces the districts on the Gaboon, Ogowe, Kuilu or Niari, and 


extends along tlie coast (Loango Coast) to the Massabi (5" South 
Latitude) on the frontier of Portuguese Cabinda. The frontiers are defined 
in detail by the Convention letween France and Portugal on the 12th May 
1886 and 25tli May 1891. The frontier, according to the Convention 
between France and the Association Internationale Africaine (Berlin 
Conference 26th February 1885) runs from the Easterly point of 
the Cabinda territory on the Upper Tshiloango, 10" 20' East of 
Paris, and follows this river until opposite Manyanga on the Congo. It 
then follows the right bank of the Congo as far as the junction of 
the Ubangui (Convention letween France and the Independent Congo 
States 29th April, 1887), continuing its course to the mouth of the 
Mbomu, and along the right bank into the Niam Niam countries, 
between the seats of Semio and Ndoruma. The eastern frontier passes 
through the territory of the Bongo and Dar Fertit (Agreement letween 
England and Germany, Novemler, 1893), as far as Dar Fur. The 
northern frontier of the French possession is, with the exception of 
the tract on the Tshad Lake (see page 40), not determined upon. The 
neighbouring state is Wadai with its vassal lands of Baghirmi. As 
regards the Western frontier towards Cameroon, see page 42. The 
Kuilu, Alina, Likuala and Sanga Valleys join the basins of the Gaboon 
and Ogowe rivers, which with the aforesaid countries along the coast 
form the territory of the first colony (Congo Fran^ais). The territory 
of the second colony (Haut Ubangui) includes the countries extending 
along the right banks of the Ubangui and its tributaries upon the right 
bank and chiefiy the basin of the Shari (1 Logone) and the Niam Niam 
countries on the right bank of the Mbomu. 

The area measures 650,000 sq. km. (1891, officially 570,000 Area, 
sq. km.); according to British calculation 300,000 square miles, of 
which about half belongs to each colony. 

Tlie number of inhabitants is 5,900,000 (officially 1891, about Population. 
5 millions; 1897, 10 millions). There are only about 800 Europeans 
beside the garrison. 


Posst'ssitm. In sudi an extonsivo province, only tlie stations on or near 

ilu' coast can be considered as actnal possesion; tlie reniaindev 
comes nnder the titles Protectorate and Sphere of Interest. 

iii,i,.,N The Loango and daboon coasts were discovered by the Portuguese 

in tiie 15th century who expcuted the natives «is slaves. 1521, the 
tirst mission established tlieie. 

1839, February 9th, Bouet Villaumez obtained the Gaboon 
territory by treaty with the chiefs. 

1841, Appearance of English and French ships to suppress the 

slave trade. 

1849, Founding of the commercial station Libreville, the capital 

of the territory. 

1850—1865, Paul Belloni du Chaillu's expedition. 

1862, France acquired the Ogowe territory. 

1873, German Loango expedition under Dr. Paul Gussfeldt. 

1877, Stanley's navigation of the Congo. 

1880, Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza commences operations on 
the Ogowe. Treaties with chiefs September 10th, October 30th 
1880 — ratified November 30th 1882 -- March 12th 1883, June 
21st 1883, December loth 1883, August 25th 1884. 

1885, February 26th, Berlin Conference. Becemhcr- 24th, 
Agreement with Germany relative to the Northern frontiers. 

1886, April 27th and June 22nd, decree, by means of which 
the colonies Gaboon and Congo became organised. 

1891, April 30th, official title, "Congo Fran^ais". 
1894, The French Congo divided into two separate colonies by 
a decree of the President of the French Republic dated July 13th. 

In the general records of the Berlin Conference, 26th Fehruary 
1885, Article I, 1—8 "General" and "Free Trade District in the 
Congo"; Article III, 10 and 12, "The Neutrality"; Article IV, 
13—25, relate to the navigation of the Congo. 


1884, Ajyril .23rd, French Convention with King Leopold II, 
according to which France received the right of preemption — le 
droit de preemption — over the territories of the Congo States. 

1885, December 24th, Convention between Germany and France 
re the Northern and North- Western frontiers. 

1886, May 12th, Convention between France and Portugal re 
frontier regulation North of the Congo and South of tlie Senegal 
(Articles 3 and 4 re the Congo). 

1887, April 29th, Treaty with the Congo State about Ubangui. 
1894, March 15th, Convention with Germany re North-East 


Both colonies are governed by a ,,commissaire du gouvernement (Toverument. 
de la Republique Fran^aise", who in the Congo has his residence 
in Libreville (200 Europeans); in Haut Ubangui at various places. 

By means of the Tsad Lake, the French possession, Sphere of Varia. 
Interest and Protectorate on the banks of the Congo and Ubangui 
are connected with the similar possessions in the West Soudan, on the 
Senegal, in the West Sahara, Algiers, and Tunis. Thus the "reunion" 
(page 41) which French politicians and patriots have so earnestly 
strived for has become "un fait accompli". 

The Congo State. 

L'J^tat Independant du Congo. Official title. 

The Western frontier is formed by the Atlantic where tlie Congo frontiers, 
discharges itself into the ocean. The North frontier leaves the ocean 
South of Povo grande near tlie Juba Factory, and runs according to 
the convention betiveen Fortugal and the Congo State of February and 

Count Kinsky, "Thn Diplomatist's Handbook for Africa". • 


March ('intli ^lay) 1801 in tlio direction of Tsliiloaiigo, touches tho 
Congo foUows tlio course of tliis river and of tlie Uhangui, and, thirdly 
tln> left hank of the INIbomu as far as the point where the latter 
intersects the fV North Latitude, in accordance with an agreement 
with France, dated August, 14th, 1894. It passes thence South to the 
oO" East of Greenwiclu tinally reaching the Latitude of the Nile Station 
Lado. after which it hends eastwards towards Lado itself, and pursues 
its course along the White Nile to the Albert Nyanza. The Congo State 
thus encloses the left of Emin Pasha's former province, which by the 
(Kjrrcmrnf with En (/land and France 12tli May and 14th Aufimt, 
IS 94, is practically leased to Leopold II during his lifetime 
("cedee a bail"). These two treaties deserve attention. The former 
was concluded with England only. By it, the territory as far as the 
Westerly watershed of the Nile is leased to the Congo State. 
France opposed this treaty, and compelled the Congo State to keep 
to the convention of the 14th August, by which this English Sphere 
of except the i)art of Emin's province, is not recognised by France. 
The treaty with England, 12th May, 1894, still remained in force; 
but in consequence of the French Convention of the 14th of August, 
1894, it was not acted upon. Owing to these circumstances, the 
frontier in this part is not fixed. The frontier returns from the 
West shore of the Albert Lake to the 30" Longitude East of 
Greenwich and, following the same, turns at the North end of the 
Tanganyika Lake, running along its western shore (declaration of 
the ffeneral administrator of the Con/jo State, Fehrmiry 1885) and 
thence along the centre of the Meru Lake from the northernmost point 
of the basin, thus cutting the Meru in two. It next follows the 
Luapula, which discharges itself into the lake, as far as its outlet 
in the Bangweolo Lake. After following the watershed a short 
distance to the 30" East Longitude of Greenwich, the frontier 
bends round towards the West in a winding line towards the 
watershed of the Congo, thereby enclosing the province Katanga. The 
South frontier runs from the Bangweolo to the Dilolo Lake, turns 


then (Convention of Congo State ivith Portugal 30th Dec. 18S6 and 
25th May 1891) towards the Noith to the Kassai ; thence along the 
7" South Latitude to Kuilu, along the 8" South Latitude to the Kuango, 
and finally parallel to Nokki to the sea-coast. (Conventions of Congo 
State with Portugal, 14th February, 1885 and 24th March 1894.) 
The frontier is settled and unbroken, i. e., apart from the circumstance 
that some of the land is leased for the lifetime of King Leopold II. 

The superficial area is 2,252,700 sq. km.; about 900,000 Area, 
square miles, British authorities. 

The population is estimated at 15 millions. 1895, 1325 Europeans, Population. 
about 839 of which Belgians. The English give 30 miUions, but the 
detailed census now being taken in the separate districts does not 
appear to confirm this figure. 

The countries of the Congo State embrace almost the entire i>i visions. 
Congo River territory with its tributaries, and particularly Urua, 
Kasongo, Katanga, Ulala and others. They are divided into districts, 
each of which has its commissioner. 

Direct possession, but only a small part occupied. In the Possession, 
former province of Emin Pasha, the territory is leased by England (?). 

1876, September 12tli. Conference of the ^'Association Inter- History. 
nationale Africaine" in Brussels to consider the ways and means 

to civilise Central Africa. 

1877, Navigation of tlie Congo by Stanley. 

1878, November 25th. l\ninding of the "Comite d'Etudes du 
Haut Congo". 

1882, Founding of the "Association Internationale du Congo". 

1884, February 26th. Lord Granville's Agreement with Portugal, 
by which the South-West coast of Africa between 5^12' and 5" 18' 
North Latitude is recognised as Portuguese territory, whereby the 
territories of the Association Internationale would have been com- 


pletely cut oft' fiom the sea. Tliis tiraty ^Yas not ratified by the 
Powers, and France made use of it to occupy the territory. — April, 
22nd, tlie territories of tlie Association recognised by the American 
Union as a stute. 

1884, April 28rd. In a private treaty with Leopold II, as head 
of the Association Internationale Africaine, France receives the right 
of preemption of his territories on the Congo, The question arose 
later whether F'rance possessed this right before or after Belgiuui; 
but it was settled in 1895 by Belgium being given the preference 
till 1900, in which year she will have to make a new agreement. 
— November, 8th. Treaty with Germany. — December, IGth, recog- 
nition of the Congo State by England. 

1884, November 1st, till February 26th, 1885; Berlin Conference. 
Founding of the Congo State and Free Trade Territonj for 20 years. 
(Passing of the Congo Act.) The territory in question is enclosed by 
a line which, starting atCette Cama in the French Congo territories, 
takes in the Ogowe Territory and the greater part of the Cameroon 
Hinterland, includes the Ubangi Uelle territory, and terminates at 
the Indian Ocean below the 5'^ North Latitude. This frontierline 
begins in the South at Ambriz in the Portuguese Colony Angola, 
follows the course of the Loge, touches the source of the Kassai 
and Congo, bends a little South of the Bangweolo Lake, touches the 
lower course of the Zambesi and follows this stream to its mouth 
in the Indian Ocean. — 5th December. Agreement with France 
relative to the Licona Question. 

1889, August 2nd. King Leopold's will, in which he bequeaths 
all his rights of sovereignty after his death to Belgium. 

1890, Brussels Conference, which allows the Congo State to 
levy some taxes and duties in the free trade territory. 

1890, July 21st. Territories of the Congo State declared 
inalienable, Belgium having already on tiie 8rd (25th and 30th) 
July, 1890, retained the right to annex the same after the expiration 
of 10 years. 


1895. Right of preemption of France regulated, by which it 
stands second only to that of Belgium till 1900. 

Conventions for the purpose of frontier regulations have been 
agreed upon between the Congo State and neighbouring states as follows : 
{a) 1883, July 2nd, with Portugal, ratified 24th March 1884. 
ip) 1884, November 8th, with Germany. 

(c) 1884, December 16th, with Great Britain. 

[d) 1884, December 27th, with the Netherlands relative to the 
possession of the numerous Dutch factories on the Congo. 

{e) 1885, February 5th (22nd November), with France re the 
North and East Frontiers. 

(/j 1885, February 14th, with Portugal. 

{g) 1887, April 29th, with France. 

Qi) 1890, June 10th, with Portugal (Lunda). 

(/) 1891, May 25th, with Portugal (1st August, neutral treaty), 
22nd November with France. 

(./) 1893, June 23rd, (1894, March 24th) with Portugal. 

{k) 1894, May 12th, with England relative to the leasing of 
the Bahr el Ghazal territory and the Western part of the former 
province of Emin Pasha. 

{I) 1894, August 14th, renewed convention with France, which 
however has become unfeasible, although the Northern frontier was 
regulated by its means. 

The central government has its seat at Brussels, and consists (ic^vonniH'iit. 
of the King of the Belgians and a state secretary for foreign, ^^^.^^ 
financial, and home affairs, under whom are a "Tresorier General" 
and three general secretaries for the departments, foreign and juridical, 
financial and home. A High Court of Appeal also exists, and can 
be convened when required. 

The lo(-al government is formed by the Governor General, his 
representative, the state inspector, general secretary, administrator 


of jiistiio. tiiiamial director and tlie coininaiuU'r of the garrison. 
Soat (if the hteai i-overniiu'nt, lioma. 

Portuo'iiose Possessio]! in LoAver-rniinoa, 

"tii.iai titir. Angola is the ofticial title of tliese Portngnese Colonies, but it 

is also used ofhcially and independently for the integral parts of 
the same, viz., Cabinda, Congo, Amhriz, Loanda, Angola, Benguella 
a nd Mossdmmedes. 

Kroiitifi-s. Xhe possession is divided into two separate territories. The 


i{egulaition>. Smaller. Cabinda, North of the mouth of the Congo, stretches from 
the Juba Factory on the coast to Massabi at the mouth of the 
Loango River, 100 km. Concerning the frontiers in the Interior 
see page 46. The part extending South of the lower course of 
the Congo, the Northern frontier of which is described on page 49, 
passes along the coast from the left bank of the Congo to the mouth 
of the Cunene River, a stretch of littoral of 1400 km. (Treaties tvith 
the Congo State, 11th February, 1885, and with France, 12th May, 1886.) 
'i'he Sotithern frontier follows the lower course of the Cunene to the 
Humbe Cataracts, takes then an easteily direction to Mpaschi 
on the Cubango, and follows its course to 20'' East Longitude of 
Greenwich (Ndara). (Agreement between Fortugal and Germany 
December, 30th, 1880.) 

According to the Anglo-Fortuguese Convention August 20th 1890, 
the "modus vivemli" November 14th 1890, and the Convention June, 
11th, 1891, the East frontier, which follows the 20" meridian East 
of Greenwich to that point where it meets the Kassai River, is of 
a provisional character. The line then follows the Kassai current 
towards the North, as described on page 50. By the Anglo-Fortuguese 


Convention, August 20th 1890, the Barotse Laud was added to 

The area araoimts to 1,315,450 sq. km. (Enghsh estimates, Area. 
457,500 square miles). 

The number of inhabitants is about 2,400,000 (according to Population. 
English estimates only 2 millions; other authorities as low as 1,315,460). 
The Portuguese give the figures as about half a million. 

The territory embraces the former Congo Kingdom, whose Divisions, 
ruler, Don Pedro V, was declared vassal to Portugal, the Lunda 
Country (Country of Muata Jamwo, Portugal's protectorate since 
1886), Loanda, Angola, Benguella, Mossamedes, the Gangella teri'i- 
tory, Amboella, Barotse, etc. 

The provinces on the coast and those extending to 15*' Lon- Possession, 
gitude East of Greenwich are actually considered as direct possession 
of the Portuguese; further East there is a Protectorate and Sphere 
of Interest. Privileged companies lease parts of the territory in the 
Interior, which apparently are very favourable for opening up. The 
same is the case in Mossamedes and elsewhere. 

The Angola Coast was discovered in 1486 by the Portuguese, History. 
Diego Coao, and soon afterwards colonised by the Portuguese. 

1578, The town Sao Paolo de Loanda founded. 

1640, Blockade of the coast and siege of Sao Paolo de Loanda 
by the Dutch fleet under Hautebeen and expulsion of the Portuguese, 
who however recovered the land from Brazil in 1650 and have re- 
mained in undisturbed possession ever since. 

A Portuguese Governoi* General resides in Sao Folo de Loanda, Varia. 
who receives his orders from Lisbon. 

A circumstance worthy of particular notice is that Portugal 
did claim the whole South African territory between the 


(i" anil 18^' South Latitude on tlie West side, and tlioir'aiid 
28" South Latitude on tlie Last across the C'ontineut. Tiie Britisli 
destroyed the dream of an "Inipero Portuguezo Sudafricano" hy 
iiravitatiiiii tVdUi Cape Cidouy towards Kgyi)t. It cannot he denied 
that Portuguese merciiants, the so-caHed '^roniheiros", liad ah-eady 
in aiKient times traversed the extensive territory of Angola to 
Mozauilti<ine. although this tract has never been governed or occupied 
hy the Portuguese. 

Ascension^ Tristan da Cunha, Walfish 


Ascension — discovered on Ascension Day, 1502, by Juan deNova, 
(hence the name) — 7" 57' South Latitude and 15" Longitude West 
of Greenwich, 750 Miles North-West of St. Helena, with an area 
of 88 sq. km. (35 square miles), and 140 inhabitants, is in British 
possession. Chief Town, Georgetoum. 1815, occupied by British troops 
to guard Napoleon; since then British. 

Tristan da Cunha, 37^ 6' South Latitude and 12^ 1' West Longi- 
tude of Greenwich, described officially as a small group of islands 
consisting of Tristan da Cunha, which the Portuguese discoverer named 
after himself, Gcmgh's Island, Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands, 
rocky islands in British possession with 61 inhabitants, (1894). 
1815, received an English garrison. 

The British possession in Walfish Bay, with the frontiers 
which were more accurately fixed on the August, 7th, 1884, embraces 
the small territory at the approach to German South West Africa, 
almost at the Tropic of Capricorn. It has an area of 1320 sq. km. 
or 430 square miles, and 768 inhabitants (1891, 31 Europeans) 


or 1-79 per square mile. The territory, which has been British 
since 1879, was added in 1884 to the Cape Colony. Fosscssion 
Island, South of Waltish Bay, together with 8 to 10 uninhabited 
islands scattered along the coast, also belongs to the English. For 
particulars concerning Waliish Bay, see also Cape Colony, p. 59. 

St. Helena. 

An island of volcanic origin lying South of 16'* South Latitude, 
153 sq. km. or 47 square miles, with 4116 inhabitants (1891), 33 to 
the sq. km. Population in 1895 has fallen to 3900 inhabitants, inclusive 
the garrison of 179 men. Exile of Napoleon I, 1815 — 1821; dis- 
covered by the Portuguese in 1502, but not colonised by them and 
soon afterwards deserted. In 1600 the Dutch took possession of the 
Island, and occupied it till 1673, when it was taken over by the 
British East India Company. Since 1815, it has been incorporated 
into the British Empire. There is much emigration to Cape Colony. 
Chief town : Jamestotvn (2300 inhab.). 

German Sontli West Africa. 

rrotcdorate of the German Empire (Schutzgebicte des deutschen official title. 
Reiches): SiicUvest-Jfrika; German Bamaraland, German Namaland. 

The Western frontier extends along the Atlantic coast, (excepting K,„nti.'iv 
Waltish Bay which is British), from the mouth of the Cunene Pviver 
a di.stance of 1500 km. (930 miles) to the mouth of the Orange 
River. The right bank of the Orange River to 20" East Longitude 
of Greenwich forms the South frontiei-. The East frontier is 
formed, in the terms of the Memorandum of December 1884, and the 

II 8 

Count Kinsley: "The Diiiloinatist's Ifandl.nok for Africa . 



Am/Jo-Gcrmiui trratii, Jsf Jiihj 1'^f)0, l)y tlic -iOth Meridian East of 
Greeiiwirli as far as tlio 22" South Latitude. Here tlie frontier 
bends towards tlie East, till it meets the 21' Longitude East of 
Greenwich, follows tliis to the 18" South Latitude, where it crosses 
the Tshobe River, and follows its course to tlie point wliere tlie 
latter discharges itself into the Zambesi. The North Frontier (Por- 
tuguese-German treaty 30th December 188G) is formed by the course 
of the Cunene as far as the Ilumbe cataracts ; it then continues in a 
straight line to jNIpashi, on the Cubango, along the right bank of 
this river to Ndara on the Okavango, and to the Katima Falls on 
the Zambesi. As the course of the Okavango has been inaccurately 
surveyed, the demarcation of the tract of laiul towards tlie Zambesi 
is uncertain. It still awaits an exact settlement. 

The area is estimated at 835,100 sq. km. or 320,000 square miles. 

Population. The population numbers 200,000 ; 1896, 2050 Europeans 

(about 700 Germans and 300 p]nglishmen). 

i»ivi-i..n< The territory includes Gross Nama- (Namaqua) land and Damara- 

land with the Kaoko and Ambolaud, Liideritzland, Upingtonia, and 
several other tracts. 

Possifssi..ii. Direct possession ; only a small part, however, is actually occupied. 

The opening up is left to different companies : West Africa Company 
Lim., South-West Africa Company, German Colonial Company for 
South-Wcst Africa, Kharaskhoma Exploring and Prospecting Syndicate, 
the Hanseatic Land, Mining and Trading Company for South-West 
Africa, South African Territories Company and several othei's. 

W'^^"''^ This extensive territory was until 1880 not under European 

influence, A stretch of littoral 150 km. broad, from the Orange 
River to the 26" South Latitude, which was acquired by tiie Bremen 
merchant, F. A. E. Liideritz, on the 1st of May and 25th of August 
1883, and further acquisitions by German subjects on the coast 


Nuitli of 26" to Cape Frio, with the exception of Walfish Bay, were 
placed under German protection on the 24th April, 1884. On the 
12th August, 1884 additions were made, the coast-line being exten- 
ded from 26" South Latitude to Cape Frio. Recognised by England, 
22nd September. 

1884, Decemler, Memorandum, concerning the frontier towards Treaties.. 
British Bechuanaland. Treaties with the chiefs, August 18th, i{,.nj„iation. 
October 11th and October 28th. 

1885, Treaties with the cJilefs in January and March, July 28th, 
September 2nd, September 15th, October 21st and November 3rd. 

1886, December 30th, Treaty with Fortugal (published 21st July 
1887) re Northern frontier. Upingtonia under German Protection. 

1890, Jnhj 1st, Treaty ivith England re Eastern frontier. 
1893—1895, War with Hendrik Witbooi. 

Governed by an Imperial Commissioner who resides at Great- 

The Imperial Government intends by degrees to declare it a Goverinuent. 


crown kind, after having fixed the limits of the native reservations 
and to divide it into farms of about 1000 to 10,000 hectars each. 

Cape Colonj. 

Cape Colony (Cape of Good Hope). i}nwv.x\ tit it-. 

To the Cape Colony belongs the colony proper, i. e., those lands *^''"J»|'^''"**- 
which before the time of the reorganisation in 1875 formed a part i>„p,iiiiiioii. 
of the same. It has an area of 191,416 square miles and a popu- 
lation of 956,485 (1891).'=) These are 

*) statesman's Year Book, 1897, fol. 170 and Dr. A. Petermann's Mittheilungen 
from Justus Perthes, Geographical Institute, Gotha, 1896, fol. 89 etc. 


burl'aco in 
square miles 







Colony proper . . . 






West Griqualand . 






East Griqualand . 






Tembnland . . . 






Tianskei .... 






Walfish Bay .... 












Til 1896 the population of the whole of Cape Colony was 
estimated at 1,725,739 (376,812 Europeans), and the area at 
225.180 square miles. 

Transkei, Temhidand and East Griqualand are the Kaffir districts, 
wliicli between 1876 and 1880 were made part of Cape Colony. In 1886 
and 1887 parts of Pondoland (Xesibeland and Rode Valle}^) were 
added. West Griqualand was annexed by Cape Colony in 1871 
in consequence of the discovery of diamonds: in 1873 it was again 
separated, being annexed for a second time as a province in 1880 
after the repeated claims of the Orange Free State had been satisfied 
by England paying I 90,000. BritisU Beclmanaland (60,770 square 
miles and 60,376 inhabitants, 1891), since the September 30th, 1885, 
a crown colony. North of West Griqualand, has been connected with 
Cape Colony since the 16th November, 1895, including the Western 
district between the Molopo, Nosob and the Anglo-German frontier, 
which till 1891 belon-^ed to the Bechuanaland Protectorate. 

Foudoland forms a sort of Personal Union with Cape Colony 
and has 200,000 inhabitants. Became a British Protectorate in 1878 
(the coast being acquired 5tli January 1885) and was annexed on 
the 25th September, 1894, by Cape Colony. The Governor of Cape 
Colony has been Governor of Pondoland since the 3rd April 1894. 


The course of the Orange river serves roughly as the Northern 
frontier: Together with the Molopo River and the frontier of the 
Orange Free State. 

Since 1878, the Governor of Cape Colony superintends, as Her 
Majesty's High Commissioner for South Africa, Basutoland, Becliuana- 
lamJ Protectorate^ the territoiy of the British South Africa Company, 
and also since February 1896 the territory of Montisioa, Chief of 
Barolong, North of British Bechuanaland, who died in the autumn 
of 1896, and of Ikanning, Chief of Bamaliti (North of Mafeking) 
which was separated from the British South African Company's 
territory in 1895. For both these territories an assistant commis- 
sioner is appointed. 

The collective territories form the direct possession of Great Possession. 

1486, Bartholomew Diaz discovered the Cape of Good Hope, History. 
and the Portuguese vainly endeavoured to found a colony there. 

1601, The Dutch East India Co establishes a peasant colony 
at the Cape, and builds in 1651 a fortress, where Cape Town is at 
present situated. 

1620, The English East India Co attemi)ts to colonise the Cape. 

1652, Van Riebeek succeeds in establishing a Dutch colony 
of the Netherlands East India Co at the Cape. 

1688 — 1689, Ilugeuot immigration to Cape Colony. 

1776, August, ^Yhilst attemcing to regain Cape Colony, the 
Dutch fleet was captured by Elphinstone in the Saldanha Bay. 

1781, First war with the Ama Kossa Kaffirs. 

1795, Revohition of the Boers against the Dutch East In- 
dia Co. 

1795, September 16th, The English establish themselves in Cape 
Colony without striking a blow, and conquer the land as far as the 
Great Fish River. 


1797, Rising of tlio l^oers ami begiuiiing of the frictions ^vith 
tlio Kniiiisli. 

1803. Capo Coloiiv. wWwh had heconu' l^'rcncli territory, restored 
to llolhiiul. 

181H). The Englisli reconiiuer Cape Cok)ny, wliich is ceded to 
them (Ml i)aymeut of 8 millions / sterling. 

1820, Extensive immigration of Scotchmen to the Cape; Port 
Elisabeth founded. 

1823, Eoimding of a British settlement in Natal. 

1837, Dutch Boers cross the great mountains, and settle in 
Natal. Emigration of the Boers northwards and defeat of Umsa- 
lekaze (Mosilekatze) near Mosilekatze's Neck. 

1839, The Boers found the Natal Free States, which the 
Englisli Government tries to incorporate witli the Cape Colony. 

IS-AO, The Boer and Kaffir wars break out. Natal declared a 
British possession, whereupon the Boers wander northwards in two 
great bodies. 

1848, The English occupy the Boer States North of the Orange 
Free State ; the Boers cross the Vaal and found Transvaal, 

1858, More than 2000 hardy peasants from Germany are 
allotted farms in British Kaffraria, including many belonging to the 
German legion raised by England for service in tlie Crimea. 

1865, Incorporation of British Kaffraria. 

1868, Incorporation of Basutoland, and 1871, West Griqualand. 

1877, Extension of England's royal prerogative over free 
Kaffirland and the Transvaal. 

1878—1879, Zulu War. 

1879, January 22nd, Battle of Isandula, in which the English 
were defeated by the Zulus and 858 out of 1329 Englisli soldiers 
killed or wounded. Followed by the decisive battle of Ulundi under 
Lord Chelmsford followed, when the Zulu power w^as completely 
shattered. June 1st, death of Prince Napoleon. August 18th, 
Cetewayo made prisoner. 


1886, December 10th, Pondoland incorporated. 

1887, Zululaud divided (14th May annexation) and the foundation 
of a new South African State, ''Vryheid", which a few months later 
was connected with tlie Transvaal. 

Cape Colony proper is divided into 74 districts, and its depen- Divisions, 
dencies into 29 divisions. A Governor is at the head ot the Colony y^^-^ 
with an Executive Council. The Legislative Council consists of 22 
members, who are elected every seven years. The Colony is managed 
by a Governor and five Ministers of State. Each district has its 
own resident magistrate, who is also Civil Commissioner, and a council 
of six members. The Seat of Government is Capetown (83,718 inha- 
bitants in 1891) or, without the suburbs only 51,251. 


The Bechuanaland Protectorate (since 27th February [30th Sep- 
tember] 1885) embraces the South African territories between the 
Molopo River, about 26" South Latitude, in the South; and the Zambesi, 
Tshobe, and Okavango in the North; German South West- Africa in 
the West; and the South African Republic and Matabeleland in tlie 
East, Tlie area is 386,200 scjuare miles and tlic population about 
100,000. Tlie greater part of the territory is made up of a water- 
less desert overgrown by thicket, with here and there a sprinkling 
of forest. It is only properly fertile in the East. According 
to the terms of a Besolution of Council, the 4th July, 1890, 
the territory was ])la('od under tlie jurisdiction of the Governor of 
British Bechuanaland, but on the 18th Novemher, 1895, when it was 
annexed l)y the Ca])e as the Crown Colony, British Bechuanaland, 
new agreements were made. According to these, the (Jiiartered 
Company of South Africa was to take over the management; 


but the loailiiiii' chiefs of tlio country protested, bciiii;- dissatislied 
uitli the proji'ct of huihliiii;- ;i railway through the country to^var(ls 
the North. Tlie result of their protests was that the districts of 
the chiefs. Khauia of Baiuangwato (chief town, Palachwe, 25,000 
inhabitants), Sebele of l^akwena, Batoen of the Bangwaketse, Mantsioa, 
cliief of the Barolong tribe of the Boratsile, and Ikanning, chief of 
the Bainaliti. were, according to the State Papers, Nos. 40 and 43, 
of the English l>luehook C. 7962, London 1896, subjected to a strict 
demarcation, and Khania, Sebele, and Bathoen were informed that 
they might rule their land as usual, "under the protection of the 
Queen." The Queen is represented by various officials. The country 
forming the protectorate outside the provinces of the chiefs mentioned 
is governed by the South Africa Company, with the exception of 
Mantsioa's and Ikanning's territories, which were pLaced under the 
High Commissioner of Cape Colony on the 3rd February, 1896, 
after being subordinated to the South Africa Company on the 18tli 
October, 1895. Seat of the authorities, ShosJ/onf/. 

Only the possessions and claims of the Bakhatla chief, Lenchwe, 
remain still upsettled. He will have to come to a decision personally. 
Owing to the construction of railways, and the mining in the neigh- 
bouring districts, as well as to the rai)id political changes characte- 
rising this part of Africa, things are by no means definitely settled. 
On the 6th August and 25th October, 1882, the Boers established 
the Republics of Stellalaud (15,490 sq. km, 15,500 inhabitants), 
And Goosen (10,400 sq. km and 17,000 inhabitants) ; but they are 
no longer existing. In 1884, Stellaland was i)laced under British 


Territory of the Chartered Company 
of British South Africa. 

(Rhodesia^ British Zambesia.) 

The names, Rliodesla, British Zambesia, ami British Central otiioiai title. 
Africa, do not exactly constitute the official titles of the lands of 
the Chartered Company of British South Africa, but are often used 
to denote the collective territories situated North and West of 
the South African Republic and the 22° South Latitude on the 
one side, and German East Africa, Congo State, Angola, Ger- 
man South West Africa, and Bechuanaland on the other. Zamhesia 
is in a sense an official title, the name Rhodesia on the other 
hand is quite unofficial. 

The course of the Zambesi divides the Dominions of the Com- Frontiers, 
pany into two parts: Northern Zamhesia on the left bank, and 
Southern Zamhesia on the right bank. According to the terms of 
the Anglo - German Ar/reemetit of the 1st July, 1890, the West 
frontier of Southern Zambesia, with which the greater part of the 
present Bechuanaland Protectorate is still united for administrative 
purposes, commences at the mouth of the Orange River, and follows 
its course as far as the 20° Longitude East of Greenwich, which, 
in turn, it follows Northwards until it cuts the 22" parallel, tlien(^ 
running to the point where it touches the 21" Longitude East of 
Greenwich. Its further course is Northward to the 18° parallel, 
which it pursues as far as the Tshobe River and Zambesia. (See 
p. 57) The East frontier was determined by the Anglo-rortiigiiese 
Treaty 11th June, 1891, as follows: A straight line beginning 
opposite the mouth of the Aroangva or Loangvariver, which flows into 
the Zambesi near Zumbo, and proceeds directly South to the 10" parallel, 

Count Kinsky: "The Diplomatist'H HaiicUiook for Africa". •^ 


follows this till its connection with the 31" meridian East of Green- 
wich, then passing directly South to the point where the Mazoe lliver 
touches the 33" Longitude East of Greenwich. The frontier then 
follows this meridian southwards to the 18" 30' South Latitude, cuts 
the iManica Tlain (1884 occupied by Portugal), along the watershed, 
winds towards the South -West to the contlux of the Sabi and 
Lunti. whence it runs to the North-Easterly point of the South- 
African Republic. Tlie frontier at the watershed on the Manica 
Plain is evidently drawn in such a manner that no more any terri- 
tory West of 32" 30' East Longitude of Greenwich shall belong to 
Portugal. Again, Great Britain has no more any claim to the land beyond 
33" East Longitude of Greenwich. TheTati gold district between the Shashi 
and Kamaquaban Rivers is excluded from the Company's territory, 
and likewise the tract of land between the Shashi and Maklutji Rivers 
and Khama's district North of the 22" parallel. 

Northern Zambesi is included politically in British Central 
Africa (which see), being only administratively connected with 
the lands of the British South Africa Company. For the Western and 
Northern frontiers see page 49, "Congo State" and "Portuguese 
Lower Guinea". 

^"■" Area of operations of the Company, 750,000 square miles. 

Population. Population uncertain, but may be safely computed at 2,500,000. 

Divisions. <^i,ice 1888 MashomUand and Mataheleland have formed the 

heart of the Company's possession. 

Possession. Southern Zambesia is the direct possession of the Company. 

Since February 1891, the Company has also governed the North 
Zambesia territory, (except Nyassaland) ; the Royal Commissioner of 
which works together with the Company, whose officials are also 
placed under him. English Bluebook 1895, C 7637. This was the 
status quo till the 1st of January 1896. 


1888, February lltli (5tli Juue). Treaty of peace with the 
Matabele Prince, Lobengula. — 25th July. Demarcation of the 
British Sphere of Interest. 

By the Royal Charter of the 29th OctoJjer, 1S89, the British History 
Sphere of Interest South of Zambesi and Tshobe was handed over 
for management to the Company. 

1890, August 20th. Frontier treaty with Portugal. 

1891, May 9th. The Sphere of Power of the High Commissioner 
of Cape Colony was extended to this territory. (Blue Book 1894 
C 7383). — 28tli May. New Frontier treaty with Portugal. 

1894, Matabele War; capture of Bulawayo. 

1896, Dr. Jameson's raid into the Transvaal and renewed 
rising of the Matabele, 

1897, January 30th. Arbitration re the Manica Plain. 

The territory is divided into 13 Districts, excepting North Goveniment 
)esi, which is undivided. '"''** 

Government Offices, Salishury and Bulawayo, 2000 inhabitants. 

British Ceutral Africa. 

Under the title of British Central Africa (usually abbreviated official title, 
into B. C. A.) is comprised since 22nd February 1893 the territory 
of the English Sphere of Interest North of the Zambesi River. 

The frontier line runs from the East Shore of the Nyassa Kiontieis. 
Lake, viz., from the parallel at wliicli the Rovuma River joins the 
M'Sinje, thence Southwards to 13" 30' South Latitude and the East 
shore of Cliiuta Lake, which it follows. Here the line runs in a straight 
line to the East shore of the Kilwa Lake, along which it continues 


its coiirsi" until it roarlies the extreme South-Easterly i)oiiit.. Tlie 
froutier next itioeeeds to the extreme Easterly aftluent of tlie Uuo 
Tiiver, folloNviiiii- tlie course of the foriuer and the Kuo till they 
discharge themselves into the Shire. From this point, the frontier turns 
in a North Westerly direction towards Chiwanga, and runs along the 
watershed hetween the Zamhesi and the Nyassa Lake, till it touches 
tlu> 14" South Latitude. The froutier from this s])ot is directed 
towards that point where the 15" Latitude meets with the Aroanga 
or Loangva, and follows the river-bed of the latter as far as tlie 
ZixmhQ^i (ANi/lo-Fortugiiese Agreement, Uth June, 1891). The South 
froutier is formed by the Zambesi River. The Western boundary 
line begins on the Zambesi at the Katima Falls, and stretches in 
a northerly direction along the river to the Kabompo, whence it 
passes to the frontiers of the Congo States. ( Anglo- Portuguese Treaty, 
31st May, 1893; valid till July 1898.) No decision was then reached 
with regard to the possessory rights of Barotseland. (See Portuguese 
Lower Guinea). In accordance with the Anglo-Fortuguese Convention, 
20t1i August, 1896, Barotseland was definitely added to Portugal. 
German East Africa forms the North fi-ontier from the South 
point of the Tanganyika to Narouga on the Nyassa Lake. The 
remainder of the frontier line runs across the Nyassa Lake as far 
as the parallel of the Rovuraa-M'Sinje junction. 

Area. Including the British Central Africa Protectorate, the territory 

measures 500,000 square miles. 

Population. The uumber of inhabitants is uncertain, but is most likely 

4 millions. Number of Europeans B50 (1895), of which 32 are 

Division;.. The former dominion of Kazemhe, North Zambesi. For the 

territory on the West Shore of the Nyassa Lake see page 69. 

The whole territory is a Sphere of Interest. For the Protectorate 
see page 69. 


Great Britain has occupied the territory since the beginning i>„sst's.sioii. 
of 1891. 

1858 — 1873, Livingstone's journeys into the Interior, his first Kistory. 
courte being across the Continent from East to West. His death 
occurred at Dsitiambo's village in the Bangweolo Lake district. 

The following districts are administered by the British South Varia, 
Africa Company (which see): Tshambesi, Tanganyika, Meru and 
Luapula. Seat of the authorities, 1895, Fort Bosehery. 

British Central Africa Protectorate. 

The land on the South and West shore of the Nyassa Lake 
has borne this name since the decree of the 14th May, 1891. It was then 
separated from British Central Africa, and placed under a Boyal 
Commissioner and Consul- General, who also superintends Northern 
Zambesi, as explained on page 66. The West frontier runs from 
North to South scarcely 100 km. distant from the West Shore of 
the Nyassa. The area and population have never been properly 
estimated. 1896, the returns for the population were 844,995, 
including 259 English. The whole country is divided into twelve 
districts, in each of which are one or two administrative officers. The 
chief town and residence of the Commissioner is Blantyre with 
6000 inhabitants, including 100 Europeans. Seat of the Administration, 
Zomha on the Shire. The garrison is formed by 200 Sikhs of the 
Indian Army. For the purpose of communication witli the sea, 
Portugal has ceded to the British Government in Tshinde, on the 
Indian Ocean, "a small piece of land" as a so-called "British 
concession", at the only navigable mouth of the Zambesi. 



This territory is situated on the rigiit bunk of the Upper ()ra,nge 
River. luul surrounded by the Orange Free State, Natal, and Cape 
CoU^iy. It has 20,040 sq. km. or 10,293 square miles, with 250,000 
inluibitauts (1895) including 600 Europeans. It was annexed in 
August 1871, and on the 18tli March 1884 placed directly under 
tiie Crown. Governed by a Resident Commissioner working under 
the High Commissioner for South Africa. 

Chief Town. Maseru, 862 inhabitants (inclusive of 99 Europeans). 


UlfKial title. 




Colony of Natal. 

The land borders in the North on the Orange Free State and 
the South African Republic together with Zululand (frontier river, 
Tugela), in the East on the Indian Ocean (200 miles), in the South on 
Cape Colony (East Griqualand), Pondoland, and Basutoland. 

Estimated at 42,920 sq. km. (20,461 square miles). 

ropiiiation. In 1891, 543,913, made up of 46,788 Europeans, 41,142 

natives of British India and 455,983 Kaffirs. In 1895, 544,000. 

Formerly an integral part of Cape Colony. Natal was converted 
into an independent Crown Colony on the 15th July 1856, and in 1866 
increased by the addition of Alfred County (the most Southerly 
Coast district). The charter of the Constitution w\as altered in 1875, 
1879, and 1893. 


The coast was discovered by Vasco da Gama ou Cliristmas History. 
Day, 1497, hence the name. 

1719, Founding of a Dutch colony, soon afterwards abandoned. 

1834, Settlement of English emigrants. 

1835, The republic " Victoria" was founded by Captain Gardiner 
but dissolved in 1838. 

1837, Gert Maritsz and Andreas Pretorius founded in Natal 
the Batavisch Afrikaansche Maatschappij and Pietermaritzburg. 

1840, Expulsion of the Boers by the English. The former 
wandered into the territory of the Vaal and Orange. 

1893, July 20th, Natal becomes an independent colony with 
a responsible government. 

The governor rules in the Queen's name, assisted by a legis- (Government. 


lative council and a legislative assembly together with five 
Ministers appointed by him. 

Capital and residence of the Governor, Pietermaritzhurg. 
17,500 inhabitants (1891). 

Ziilulancl and Tonofoland. 

The British possession Zulnland (annexed 14th May 1887) lies to 
the North-East of Natal, and borders on the North and West on the 
South African Republic and Tongoland (Tongola River, Maputa and 
Usutu Rivers, Swasiland), on the East on the Indian Ocean {Convention of 
England tvith the South African Republic, ^Oth June 1888). It embraces 
the former Zulu Reserve, the greater part of the dominion of Cetewayo 
who died 9th February 1884 and that of Usibebii, and Santa Lucia Bay 
(12,500 square miles, 22,320 sq. km. with 165,121 (1895) inhabi- 
tants, including about 1246 whites). The territory is administered by 


the Govonior of Natal. Tlio Commissioner has his residence at 
.Kshour, (100 ^Yhites). 1888 and 1890, some territories on tlie other 
side of the former Nortli frontier towards the Mkusi lliver were joined 
to /uhiland. 2ord April. 1895, hy a proclamation of the Governor 
coiuHMiiiiiii the intended railway from the sea to the Sonth African 
Uepultlic. the territories of tlie chiefs of Umhegesa, Mdhlaleni Sam- 
bane and others were joined to Zululand, the union being confirmed 
by a Pioyal (^rder of the 8th June, 1895. Aufflo- Portuguese Treaty 
jiiSfli Mai/. IS.'n. English IJluebooks C 7780 and C 7878, London 
1895. See also Petermann's geograph. Mittheilimgen, 1896 f. 90. 

Tomjoland, Amatongo, situated North of Zululand ; friendly 
treaty with England since 6th July, 1887; 5000 sq. km. with 31,000 
inhabitants. On SOtli May, 1895, made a British Protectorate, and 
l)laced under the government of Natal. (English Blue Book C 7395, 
London 1885.) The North frontier was regulated by an agreement 
with Portugal 28tli May, 1891. Further agreements are dated 
29th November (3rd December) 1887; 1888 (with Zambila) and 
August 1890. 

The British annexations in Zululand and Tongoland Protectorate 
render it impossible for the South African Republic to build a 
railroad to the South without passing through British territory. The 
Boer Free State is therefore entirely cut off from the sea. 

Orange Republic. 

Official title. Qyanje Vrij.^faat (Orange Free State). 

Frontiers. The South Frontier is formed by Cape Colony near the course 

of the Orange River ; the East frontier by Basutoland and Natal, 
the North frontier by the South African Republic (Vaal River), and 
the West frontier by West Griqualand. 


131,070 sq. km. (48,326 square miles). Area. 

1890 — 207,503 (129,787 natives); 1895 — 220,000. Population. 

Independent State. Possession. 

In 1836 tlie territoiy was still a wilderness inhabited by History. 
Bediuans and Bushmen. When in 1834 the British proclaimed the 
abolition of the slave trade in Cape Colony, the Boers wandered 
with their slaves into the territory of the present Republic, and founded 
there a free state, which, being taken by the English in 1848, and 
on the 23th February 1854 declared independent, received on the 
10th April of the same year a constitution, which was revised on 
the 9tli February 1866 and 8th May 1879. On the abolition of sla- 
very by the Boers, the latter received from England in 1854 all 
the possessions belonging to them in the territory of the free state. 
Since then the country has been quietly developing. 

1897, May 25th. Commercial treaty with Germany. — June 17th, 
Union with the South African Republic. 

The legislature for the 19 districts consists of a Volksraad Oovemment. 


with 58 members and an executive with a president, who is elected 
every five years. Capital: Bloemfontem, 3,457 inhabitants, of which, 
in 1890, 2077 were Africanders or Europeans. 

South African Republic (Formerly 

Zii'iilafiil-aansclic Beimhlkh, formerly Tranmwl-Vnjstaat. Oiiicial title. 

In the West tlie territory borders on Bechuanaland and ]hntish Frontiers. 
Central Africa, the boundary line being formed by the Limi)opo or 

Count Kinsky: "The Diplomatisfs Uandbook for Alrica". l*^ 



CrocodWv \V\\ or {('on rn/tioH irifh England 37th Fvhrminj ISSI). In 
the North it b.uilors (»ii tlie territory of the Ih'itish South Africa 
Conii)any : in tlic East on rortuguese East-Africa, Ziihi, and Tongo- 
land: ami in the South on Natal and the Orange Free State. 
Aiva. Total Area, 308,560 sq. km., 119,139 square miles. 

,..,,,„,„ion. April 1895, 790,000. 

Besides the Transvaal proper, the territory of the Republic 
includes also, since 1887, the New BepiMie, Zululand, which was 
founded by the Boers on the IGtli August, 1884, under the name 
" Vryheid", and (since 10th December 1894), the Protectorate state 
of Sirasiland, declared independent in 1884 (18,140 sq. km., 41,000 
inhabitants, 1000 Europeans), the KepubHc being unable to incor- 
porate it. 

Independent State, whose foreign affairs are so far limited by 
raragraph IV of the treaty ivlth England 27th February 1884, that 
Enr/land has a right of veto in all state treaties within six months. 

The state was formed l)y those Boers who emigrated in 1835 
Treaties. ^^.^^^^ q^^^^ Colony to Natal, but who left the latter territory when 
it was annexed by England and declared a crown colony. 

1852, February 17th, England's recognition of the independence 
of the State. 

1853. Founding of Pretoria. Proclamation of the Constitution 
in 33 Articles (from 23rd May, 1819). 

1858, Februqiry 13th, passing of the Grondwet or Fundamental 

1869, July 29th, Frontier regulation treaty with Portugal. 

1875, Ignatz Maritsz founded the Small Free State. 

1877, April 12th, England annexes the Transvaal. 

1880, Commencement of the war with England. 

1880, January and February. ?>attles by Laing's Neck on the 
Ingogo and near Majuba. 




1881, March 21st. Volksraad resolution, 26tli October, 1881. 
Restitution of the Transvaal State in reference to home affairs, the 
management and control of foreign affairs being made subject to 
the suzerainty of the Queen of England. 

1884, Fehniary 27tli (August 3rd 1881) Convention ivitli Eng- 
land (ratified by the Volksraad August 8th 1884) by which Enfj- 
lamVs suzerainty for the control of foreign affairs of the State was 
restricted, and the State for political reasons adopted the name of the 
"South African BeimUic" . 

1887, September 14tli. Incorporation of the New Republic. 

1888, June 20th. England's recognition of the alterations in 
the South African Republic. 

1889, March 13th, ]Mashona and :Matabeleland fall under the 
British Sphere of Interest. 

1890, June 23rd, Revision of the constitution; 2nd August, front- 
ier treaty with England and incorporation of the Small Free State; 
August 4th, Incorporation of a part of Swasiland (Swasiland Con- 

1894, December 10th. Swasiland becomes a protectorate state 
of the South African Republic. Although not incorporated, the Boers 
have had the right of legislating and administering justice since the 
21st February, 1895. 

1896, December. Dr. Jameson's invasion and march to Johannes- 

1897, March, (June 17th). Union with the Orange Free State. 

At the head of the State is a president, elected every three years 
and supported by two chambers the Eerste Raad and the Volksraad, 
each composed of 24 members. 

Capital: Pretoria, 8000 inhabitants. 



offitial title. 




Ti'f .nf it's. 

PortiioiK^se East Africa. 

Ksfailo (V Africa Oriciifal, fonneily Moramhfqm and Sofala. 

The I-M^f frontier is formed by the Indian Ocean from the 
Ivosi Bay, abont 27" Sonth Latitude, to Cape Delgado at the mouth 
of the Kovunia, about 10" 30' South Latitude; the North frontier, 
towards German East Africa, by the course of the Rovuma (German- 
rortti(]uese-English agreement, 29tli Octoher and SOtli Beceniher, 1886 
and Id Jnly 1890 \ re the territory at the mouth of the river 
[Kionga bay] Septemher 1894) to liy," South Latitude, whence 
it runs in a straiglit line to the East shore of the Nyassa Lake. 
The frontier next foHows the shore of the lake towards the South 
as far as the 13" 30' South Latitude. From this point it is formed 
by the hitherto inaccurately defined frontier on the Manica Plain 
(vide Anglo-Portuguese convention oj the 28th Mag and 11th June, 
1891). From Limpopo onwards the territory is bordered by the S. A. 
Kepublic. In the South, the Estado bordeis on British Tongo- 
land and Zululand. * 

The area amounts to 768,740 sq. km., (261,700 square miles.) 

Population, 1,500,000; other authorities, 768,740 to 2'k millions. 

The territory embraces the districts of Cape Delgado, Ibo, 
j\[o(;ambique, Inhambane, Quilimane, Senna, Tcte, Sumbo, Gasaland, 
Sofala, Lauren(;o Marquez, Delagoa Bay (the "key" to South Africa) 
and several small islands. The land is divided into two parts, by the 
course of the Zambesi Mogamhique North of the Zambesi, and Lau- 
rengo Marquez, South of same, with capitals bearing the same name. 

Direct possession, which nevertheless, according to Royal Decree 
of the September 30th, 1891, is leased for 25 years to private com- 
panies for opening up and general management. 

Vasco da Gama discovered the coast in 1498, and it was soon 
afterwards colonised by Tristan da Cunlia and became the scene of 


many immigrations. The territory was connected administratively Frontier. 

•11 -inrc-k Regulation. 

with Goa in the East Indies till 1752. 

1869, July 29tli, Frontier regulation treaty with Transvaal. 

1870, Abolition of slavery. 

1878, Arbitation by the French Marshall, Mac Mahou, whereby 
Portugal obtained definite possession of Delagoa Bay, claimed by 
England. Disputes arose with England (African Lakes Co, Building 
of the Stevenson Road, Cardosa, Serpa Pinto), which resulted in 
England's colonisation work on the Lake Nyassa. England maintained 
the right of preemption of Delagoa Bay. 

1884, Portuguese occupation of Manica. 

1885, October 14th, Vrotection treaty with the Zulus under 

1888, April 27th, Reclamation of Mashonaland. 

1890, August 20th, An un-ratified treaty with England re- 
lative to the Zambesi basins. 

1891, May 28th, Renewed frontier treaty with JEnglancl 
1891, July 30th, Formation of the Inhambane and Mozam- 
bique Companies. 

1891, September 30th, Formation of the Estado d' Africa Oriental. Government. 

1895, February. Regulation of the German frontier. 

1896, December 9th. Definitive regulation of the German- 
Portuguese frontier. 

1897, April. — Bern Arbitration re Delagoa Bay railway. 

A Royal Commissioner General, appointed for three years, rules Varia. 
the state as Governor and has his seat in Laurengo Marques (1700 
Europeans; 5000— 6000 black inhabitants, 700 Portuguese, [1897]). 
The native chiefs in the various districts are subject to him as Capitaes 
moroes. An important railroad runs from Laurenco Marcpiez (1895, 
57 miles laid by the Portuguese and 290 miles by the Netherland 
Company) to the South African Republic (Pretoria). A line is also 
being built from Beira to Salisbury in Rhodesia. 


Madnoascar and nepeii(l(MU*ios. 

• Mfirial titlo. Ma(ltl(/((scar. 

DiTisions. l^esides tlu> large island, the St. Marie, Nossi Be, and Glorioso 

Islamh are regarded us dependencies of Madagascar, the former on 
the N. K. side, and the latter on the N. W. side of the Island. 

Area. Area, 591,5()li sq. km. (228,500 square miles) with the surround- 

ing islets, 591,964 sq. km. (1650 km. greatest length, 520 km. 
greatest breadth, 400 km. average width. 

Population. Topulation : 3,500,000 (French official indication 1897 : from five 

to six Millions). jNIalay Hovas : 1 Million, Sakalavas: 1 Million, Bet- 
siloes: 600,000, Betsimisarakas: 400,000, Southern races: 200,000. 

Poss^ession. Siuce August 1896, direct French possession. 

Hii^tory. Madagascar was mentioned by Marco Polo as early as the 13th 

Century. 10th August, 1506, discovered by the Portuguese d' Almeida, 
who called it Sao Lourenco. Under Louis XIV declared French 
possession ; the kingdom of the Malegassies however remained intact. 
Subsequently the last dominion collapsed. 

1814, Reconquest of Foulepointe, Tamatave and St. Marie by 
the French. 

1822, Expulsion of the French by Ptadama I, who was supported 
by England, whereupon Ranavalo I expelled all Europeans from the 

1845, Franco-British Expedition against Madagascar. 

1862, In conse(iuence of having conceded land to the French- 
man Lambert, Radama 11 was killed. His wife and successor, 
Ilasoherina, formed an alliance with England and the U. S. A. to 
her ultimate detriment. 


1868, Angust 8th, Renewed frmty icHli France. 

1869, Ranavalo II adopts Christianity through EngHsh influence; 
wars and rebelHons follow. 

1885, December 17tli. At the end of the French war, France 
obtained the right, hij a treaty, to maintain a general resident on 
the island and to control foreign affairs. (Occupation of Diego 
Suarez Bay by France.) 

1890, England recognises the French protectorate of the island, 
but the natives oppose any kind of protectorate whatever. 

1895, May, French war with Madagascar. The taking of the 
Capital on the 1st October led to the occupation of the island. 

1896, July 11th and August 3rd, Decree of the French Govern- 
ment concerning the reorganisation of the island. 

1896, August 6th, Official proclamation of the annexation of the 
island by France in January, which is recognised by the U. S. A. 

The Hovas have been allowed to retain the Royal dignity (the Government. 
Prime Minister is also the Queen's husband). Ranavalo III has 
reigned since the 13th July 1883. Capital: Antananarivo, 100,000 
inhabitants. Seaport: Tamatave, 10,000 Inhabitants. Slavery still 
exists in a patriarchal sense, although abolished by a proclamation 
on the 8th March, 1889. 

The surrounding islands, which are dependencies of Madagascar, 
are St. Marie, since 1643 French, with 165 sq. km. (64 square miles) 
and 7667 Inhabitants, and Nossi Be, 393 sq. km. or 113 square miles 
and 7700 Inhabitants. These islands were formerly direct French 
possession, as also was Dicno Snares (4567 inhab.) on the Nortli Coast. 

The uninhabited islands are Juan de Nova, Bassas de India 
and Europa. 


^[niiritiiis and 1 )(^pcndoiicies. 

Mifi.iai till.'. CoJonij of MiiHf/tiHx, toniuM'ly l^lc ilc France. 

Divisions. Tlio Easterly jMascavenlias Island, Maurithis, belongs to tlie 

Colony of M(i/ir/fif<!i. together witli the h](in(h Jiodrif/iiCi 110 sq. km., 
J>/(\(/o (i((n-i(L Amiraufc.'^, Seychelles, of which only Mahe and Pras- 
lin are inhabited, the Tshagos Islands, Trois freres or Eagle Islands, 
the Cosmoledo Islands (Oil Islands) Assumption, St. Brandon or 
Can/ados (16" 50' and 16*^20' Sonth Latitude and 50)" Ki' to 59n4' 
Longitude East of Greenwich), and lastly the Aldabra Islands 
157 s(i. km. 

Aivit. ^Mauritius, 705 square miles, Seychelles 264 sq. km., Amirantes 

13 sq. km. Total area of the dependencies, 172 square miles. 

PopniMfion. Mauritius 370,588 (1891) (1895; 375,000) inhabitants, two 

thirds of whom are Indians and 3400 Chinese; the Seychelles 16,400 
(1891); Amirantes 100 (1891); Rodriguez 2061 (1891); Diego 
Garcia 700. 




Direct possession of Great Britain. 

The Mascarenhas Islands were discovered in 1505 and 1507 by 
the Portuguese Pietro Mascarenhas Mauritius (discovered 1507) 
was occupied in 1591 by the Dutch under Van Neck, who named 
the island after his sovereign. 1712 evacuated by the Dutch, 
1721 occupied by France, who ceded Mauritius and the Seychelles 
in" 1814 to PiUgland. 

Capital of Mauritius and seat of the Governor, Fort Louis, 
58,244 inhabitants (1894). Chief town of the Seychelles Make. 


Reunion and Dependencies. 

Reunion (Isle de Bourbon). Official title 

The islands Mayotta (since 26tli January 1896), St. Paul, and New DiAisions. 
Amsterdam, which Great Britain ceded to France, in 1892, together 
with the uninliabited Kerguelen islands, annexed by France in 1893, 
are dependencies of the westerly Mascarenhas Island. St. Paul is 
the oldest French settlement in the Indian Ocean. 

The area of Reunion is 2512 sq. km. or 965 square miles, of Area. 
Mayotta 366 sq. km. or 140 sq. m. 

167,847 (1893) inhabirants, one-fifth whites, 23,161 British In- Population, 
dians, 412 Chinese (1892). Mayotta contains 8706 inhabitants (1893). 

Direct possession of P'rance. Possession. 

1505, discovered by Pietro Mascarenhas; 1631, the island was History, 
colonised by the French merchant Gobert from Dieppe. It was used 
for a long time as a convict station. 1764, conquered bytheEnghsh. 
1784 returned to France, and the island has remained since' then 
a French possession. Mayotta has belonged since 1843 to France. 

Capital: St. Denis; sends one Senator and two Deputies to the \'aiia. 
French Chamber of Deputies. 

The Comoro Islands. 

Les Co mo res. official title. 

This archipelago, situated North West of Madagascar, consists Divisions, 
of the islands Great Comoro, Mohilla, and Johanna. The small uninha- 
bited islands situated North of Madagascar also belong to this group, 

Count Kinsky: "The Diplomatist's Handbook for Africa". 11 


viz., xU^fDH/ttion, Astorc, Cosmolrdo, St. Ficrre, Providence, Cerf 
and l'\ir<iH/i(U\ toi^vtlicr with tlic HV.vnv/ Cl'Jf's; Tromelin, Galeya, 
II ml (idrdi/os are unoccupied. 

Airii. 1972 S(|. km. (620 sq. u\.) area of the Comoro Islands. 

i'upniati..n. Conioros 61.700 (according' to I'ritisli autliorities 53,000). 

i»oss«'ssinii. Protectorate of tlie French RepubHc ; Mayotta French possession 

since 1S45. 

^''»''" The French Protectorate came into force on the basis of the 

treaty dated Johanna, ^4th April, 1886. 


nffuiai title. Zanzibar (Sansihar). 

Frontiers. The territory of the Sultan of Zanzibar consists of the islands Zr/w- 

ziharsindPemha. None of the opposite mainland belongs to the Sultanate. 

•^""<' Zanzibar, 1590 sq. km., 625 square miles; Pemba, 960 sq. km. 

360 square miles. 

Pupniatinii. Zanzibar 150,000, Pemba 50,000 of which more than 100 are 

of European descent (50 English, 50 Germans and 7000 Indians). 

Possession. British protectorate since the 1st July (4th November) 1890. 

Since the 31st August, 1896, known as the East Africa Protectorate. 

History. jn 1499 Vasco da Gama's fleet touched the island, which fell 

into the hands of the Portuguese in 1503. The African coast from 
Mombassa to Cape Corrientes, together with the islands, came under 
the rule of Portugal in 1529. 1698, Imam of Maskat conquered the 


territory, and drove the Portuguese South. 1823 and following years, 
British appeared in Zanzibar waters. 1856, the possessions of Imam 
Sejjid Said of Maskat were divided between his two sons, and 
Sejjid Medshid acquired the African countries on the mainland, 
which had in the meantime been extended to the regions of Tan- 
ganyika and Nyanza, as an independent state. The Governor General 
of India, Lord Canmng, recognised the division in 1861, but France 
not untill the 10th March, 1862. At that time the coast of the African 
continent from Warsheik, V North Latitude, to Tunghi Bay, 10 "42' 
South Latitude, also belonged to Zanzibar. Germany's recognition 
30th December, 1886. October 29th (IstNovember) 1886, the territory, 
which had in the meantime extended far into the interior, was 
divided in such a way that the coast land from Cape Delgado to 
Kipini on the Ozi River, 10 miles broad and stretching into the 
interior, was added to the Sultan's dominion. It was then decided 
that the German Empire should possess a Sphere of Interest in 
connection with the Zanzibar territory from the Rovuma River to the 
Umba River. North of Kipini, the Sultan retained several garrison 
towns, viz., Lamu, Kismayu, Brava, Merka, Maqdishu and Warsheik. 

1885, August 14th, Recognition of the German Protectorate over 
Usagara, Nguru, Useguha and Ukami. 

1888, May, the German East Africa Co. obtains, in consideration 
of the payment of 4 million marks, the right to administrate in 
Mrima, (the interior from Rovuma to the Umba). England (Imperial 
British East Africa Company), as early as the 24th of May, 1887, 
had acquired the right of administration of the land from the Umbi 
to Kipini for a yearly payment to the Sultan. 

1889, August 31st, England obtained the island and Ports 
Lamu, Manda and Patta to the North of Tana. 

1890, November 4th, liritish Protectorate of Zanzibar and 

cession to England of the territory from Umba to Juba, with Witu as 

British Sphere of Interest, Germany receiving Heligoland in exchange. 



1892, August 2r)th (.luly Ifitli), Italy leases from the Sultan 
Warsheik. ^IiKulisliu, Mevka and r»niva. 

1893, July 81st, Sultan once more governs tlie territory bet- 
ween Tana and Juba. 

1895, June loth. Declaration of l^ritish Protectorate over all 
the country from the coast to Uganda; on the 50th June the British 
Imperial Government itself takes a tirm footing there. 

1896, August 25tli, Sultan Sejjid Hamed bin Tliwain bin Sa'id 
dies. Ilamud bin Muhammed succeeds him. 

1897, April 6th, Abolition of slavery, which was already prohi- 
bited in 1890. 

..veiiiiiu'iit. The present government of Zanzibar was formed in October, 

^«'"^"*- jytj^^ ^^..^j^ Sir L. Mathews as ''Prime Minister''. All proclamations 
and agreements, etc., must be drawn up in the English and Arabian 
languages, and must first be submitted to the English Consul General 
for his consent. Since the 1st February, 1891, Zanzibar a free port. 
Chief town, Zandhar, 30,000 inhabitants (often estimated at 100,000). 

German East Africa. 

<»fficiai title. Protectorate of the German Empire (Schutzgebiete des deutschen 

Reich es): German East Africa, Beutscli-Ostafrika. 
Frontiers. In the East, the Indian Ocean (the Matia Island has also be- 

longed to the Protectorate since the 1st December 1891), in the t^outh 
(Fortuguese, German and English conventions of the 29th October 
[1st November] and 30th December 1886, 1st Jidy 1890, and Sep- 
tember 1894), a straight line from Cape Delgado to the Rovuma, 
(the Kionga Bay is German), then along the course of this river to 
IIV2" South Latitude, whence it passes direct to the East shore of 
the Nyassa Lake as far as Karonga, the track of the former 


Stevenson road to Tanganyika (Anglo-German Treaty 1st July 1890), 
along the East sliore of the basin of this lake toUsige on the North shore 
of the Tanganyika, and from here in a sti-aight line as far as Mfumbiro 
(Declaration of the Congo State's Administrator February 1885), till 
it reaches the 1" North Latitude. Omitting the Mfumbio, the North 
frontier follows the 1" North Latitude (Convention hetween England 
and Germany 1st July 1890) across the Victoria Nyanza as far as 
Kawirondo Bay, thence continuing its course in a straight line N. E. 
towards Kilima Ndsharo, which belongs to Germany, and so to the 
North bank at the mouth of the Umba. (Treaties hetween England 
and Germany, 1st November, 1886 and 1st July, 1893). 

975,000 sq. km. or 310,000 square miles, which (according to Area. 
Dr. Karl Peters) are divided into 220,000 sq. km. settlement land, 
116,000 sq. km. uninhabited territory, and 66,000 sq. km. water. 

The number of inhabitants is estimated at 3,850,000 (English Population. 
estimates 2,100,000. 1896, about 1000 Europeans. 

The most important provinces are Usambara, Usagara, Uhelie, Divisions. 
Uniamwesi, Karagwe, Iramba, Konde, Kawende, Iluanda, Usukuma, 
further the Matia island in the Indian Ocean and Ukerewe in the 
Victoria Nyanza. 

A so-called Protectorate, but in reality a direct possession. P.^sscssion. 
Dr. Peters, Dr. Jtthlke, and Count Joachim Pfeil lauded in Histoiy. 


Saadani on the 4th November, 1884, and concluded, as representatives Frontier, 
of the German Colonisation Society the first commercial treaty on Regulations, 
the 19th November, having at the same time hoisted the German flag 
in M'buzimi. 

1885, February 12th (3rd March), Formation of the German 
East Africa Company in Berlin by Dr. Carl Peters, who was furnished 
with an Imperial Privilege, etc., on tlio 27th February (Special trea- 
ties witli the chiefs, 8th of April, lOtli and 19th of June, 26th of 


November, 29tli of November, and 9th of December). 14tli of August, 
Geriiiaii I'lotectorate recognised by the Sultan of Zanzibar. 

188(), .lun*-', the (Jeniian part of the territory in the Sultanate 
of ^Vitu ai'(|uired by the l>rothers Denhardt became the ])roi)erty 
(d" the (Jerman East Africa Company. — 29th Octobei- (1st No- 
vember), Regulation of tlie North Frontier ^vith England. 

1887, March 27t]i, The rights of a body corporate granted to 
the German East Africa C'omi)auy. 

1888, Arab rebellion. — 16th August, the tract of coast from 
Wauga to IvoYuma taken over. (Convention ivith Zanzibar, 28tk April, 

1889, October 22nd, Declaration of the German Protectorate 
over the coast from Witu to Kismayu, followed by claims from 
England. — 17th August of the same year, Baron Lambermont's 
arbitration in reference to liamu. 

1890, March, Wissman appointed Imperial Governor. 

1890, July 1st (17th June), Treaty hetiveen Germany, England 
and the Stdtan of Zanzibar, determining the present frontiers 
of the possession. (Uganda comes under the British Sphere of 
Interest). — 27th October, The indemnity of 4 million Marks fixed. 
— 17th November, France gives her consent. 

1896, Wissraann retires. 

(iovenimeiit. The Government is administrated by an Imperial Governor, who 

has his residence at Ddr ea salam (6000 inhabitants). 

British East Africa. 

Official title. Imperial British East Africa (usually abbreviated I. B. E. A.). 

All the British possessions in East Africa excepting Zanzibar, 

Pemba and Uganda, bear since 1896 Aug. the name of the ''East Africa 

Protectorate". The „ Uganda Protectorate" existe since 1896, July. 


The Indian Ocean from the mouth of the Umba to that of the p>ontiers. 
Juba forms the East frontier. The boundary line proceeds along 
the Juba, the upper course of which is still unexplored, as far as 
the crossing of the 40*^ East Longitude of Greenwich and the 6" 
North Latitude, whence it follows the latter (Anglo-Italian agreement 
24t1i March and 15th April 1891) to 35'* Longitude East of Green- 
wich, and so to the Bahr el azraq or Blue Nile. The North frontier 
towards the Mahdi's dominion is not fixed; in general the 10'^ North 
Latitude may be taken as an approximative frontier. The Soutii 
frontier is the North frontier of German East Africa (which see); 
the West frontier (see the East frontier of the Congo State), runs 
along the 30" Longitude East of Greenwich across the Albert 
Edward Lake and along the Semliki on the West of the Albert 
Lake through the Niam Niam lands to 10" North Latitude and Soutli 

2,600,000 sq. km. or one million square miles. Uganda alone Area, 
contains 80,000 sq. km. 

Roughly estimated, about five million inhabitants. Up to the Population. 
l)resent, the English have published no official census. 

The L B. E. A. possessions embrace Uganda, Usoga, Unioro, Ankori, Divisions. 
Mpororo, Koki, a part of Ruanda; the Niam Niam countries, the 
former Egyptian Equatorial Province of Emin Pasha, also, according 
to some accounts, a part of Kordofan and Dar-Fur, Kawirondo, 
Massai, and a part of the Galla and Somali countries. 

L5th June 1895, British Protectorate declared over the whole Possession, 
country from the Indian Ocean to Uganda, including the former 
Sultanate of Witu. 

The coast territory belongs, as already mentioned, to the Sultan History, 
of Zanzibar. 7th February 1824, Admiral Owen, who in the fri- Fi.y„tier! 
gate "Leven" dropped anchor off Mombassa, declared Mombassa, the i^eguiation. 


island Teinha, aud t\w coast from ]\roliiuli to raiigani under Britisli 
ProtiH'ti<»n. on tlio strongtli of a convention witli the Sultan of 
Zanzibar, and despite the presence of a Heet from Maskat. This 
act ^Yas not ratitied, and tlie British flag was consequently lowered 
in jNIombassa, tiie Kni;lish ofticials left, and the country remained 
in tlie hands of Arabs from jNFasUat till 185G, wlien tlie Sultan of 
Zan/ihar took ])ossession. 

1885, April 8th. Denhart Brothers received land from the Sultan 
of Witu, which they ])laced under a German Protectorate 27th of May. 

1887, May 24th. The stretch of land from Wan^ja to Ki])ini 
handed over to the British East Africa Com])any. 

1888, October 9th. Sultan of Zanzibar ceded the stretch of 
coast from Umba to Ozi to the Imperial British East Africa 
Company for tifty years. 

1889, August 31st. The Sultan yields up all his possessions 
North of Kipini to the Company. 

1890, July 1st. The British Sphere of Interest more definitely 
fixed by Germany and England. — 5th August, Recognition of 
the British Protectorate by France. — 19th November. British 
Protectorate over Witu, Kismaju, Patta, Manda. 

1891, The company took over all the land from Umba to 
Juba (400 miles length of coast), from the Sultan for a yearly 
payment of 80,000 dollars, and at the same time the ports North 
of Kumayu were by the Anglo-Italian convention of 24th March 
{16th July) 18 93 leased by the Company to Italy. 

1892, March 30th. Protectorate treaty with Uganda. 

1893, End of March. The Company, which had occupied the 
whole territory as far as Uganda, the Albert Edward Lake, and 
Semliki River, retires from Uganda. 

1893, July 31st. The Company gives up the administration 
of AVitu. 

1894, June 19th. British Protectorate declared over Uganda. 


1895, June 15tli. The whole of the lands of the I. B. E. A. 
placed under British protection, and the administration taken over by 
England on the 30th June, and placed under the control of the 
British Consul General at Zanzibar. 

The Uganda province is under a commissioner, who is subordinate Oovemment. 
to the British Agent and Commissioner at Zanzibar, who is also 
responsible for order along the coast for a distance of ten miles inland 
and for the maintenance of the communication between the coast 
and Uganda. — A railway 657 miles long is being built from Mom- 
bassa to the Victoria Nyanza. A road, 100 miles long, runs from 
Morabassa to Kibwezi. 

The chief town of Uganda is — Mengo (seat of the British authori- 
ties: Por/^ Alice), Seat of the government, Mombassa, 15,000 inhabitants. 

British Possession in Somaliland and 


Somali Coast Protectorate. (Hiiciai title. 

The frontier line leaves the sea-coast West of Zejla on the Frontiers. 
Gulf of Aden at Cape Wahadii, and stretches southward across 
Lovadu (Lavada), Davali, Abasuen, and Biokaboba to Dshildessa. Here 
it turns towards the South-East to Milmil, then follows the 8" North 
Latitude Eastwards to the 48'^ Longitude East of Greenwich, 
whence it runs N. E. as far as Wadi Nogal and from this valley 
directly North along the 49" Longitude East of Greenwich to the 
coast again, which it reaches at the seaport. Bender Ziada. (Franco- 
FMfillsh Afjrcement of 2nd of Fehniary 1888, and Anglo-Italian 
Convention of 5th of May 1894.) 

77,000 sq. km. ; English estimates "about 75,000 square miles", 

Count KiriBky: "The Diplomatist'H Handbook Tor Africa". ^^ 



Pupuintion. Population : 240,000. 

iMvisions. The possessioii embraces tlie provinces of Ejssa (Tsa), (Jada- 

bnrssi. llabr Aiuil, llabr Gerliadjii, Dolbohauta, llabr Toldshalej, 
\Var Siniieli Somali. 

i>.,.^...>.i.,„ Protectorate of Great Britain, whicli liowever resembles an 

actual possession, although some of the Somali chiefs receive subsidies 
from the British Government. 

iii«ituiy. As early as 1827, England had established herself on the 


Somali coast from Aden and India, and in 1855 concluded con- 
Ro-iiiation, yentions from Berbera with the most important Somali chiefs (Ugases, 
Garades, Sultans). 

1875. Occupation of the Somali coast by the Egyptians. 

1884. Egyptians evacuate the districts. Since 1887, England 
has occupied the ports under the title of a protectorate. 

1885. March; Ejssa, Gadaburssi and Habr Aual Somali under 
British Protectorate. 

1888, February 2nd. Regulation of the West frontier hy a 
Franco-Mncjlish Convention. 

1889, December 13th. Regulation of the Protectorate. (Somali 
Order in Council). 

1894, May 5th. The frontiers determined by means of an 
Anglo-Italian Agreement. 

Govenimeiit The territory is administered by the political agent of the 

governor of Aden, who is at the same time Consul for the Somali 
Coast. (Seat of the Vice Consul and British Agent, Berbera). In 
the winter 30,000 inhabitants, during the summer almost deserted. 

The Sokotra Archipelago embraces the Islands Sokotra, Abd el 
Kury and the Brothers Islands with an area of 3579 scj. km. (1382 
square miles, including the area of Kuria Muria on the Arabian 
coast) and 10,000 inhabitants. The greater part of the archipelago 
was bought from the Sultan of Sokotra in 1875, and in accordance 


Avitli the rights of preemption, which were obtaiued by a treaty 
with the Sultan of Kashin in South Arabia, 1876, occupied by Eng- 
land 30th September, 1886, and administered from Aden. An agent 
and a small garrison are stationed at Tamarida on the North coast. 

French Possession on the Gulf of Aden. 

Cote Frangaise des Sonialis et dependances (formerly Ohock.) Official title. 

The Gulf of Aden starting from Raheita (Ras Dumejra 12^ 30' Frontiers. 
North Latitude) via the Gubet el Kharaib (Virgin's Water) as 
far as Cape Lovadu or Ras Ali (Wells of Hadu) 25 km. East of 
Ras Dshibuti (250 km.) forms the East frontier. The frontier then 
runs along the caravan tract from Dshibuti across Lovadu, Dauah, 
Abasuen to Bia Kaboba and Dshildessa. A West and South Sphere 
of Interest is considered as extending across the Somali and Afar 
(Danakil) countries to the foot of the Abyssinian mountains. The 
courses of the Raheita River, the Hawash, and its tributary Addifuha, 
denote the direction of the North West frontier. Anglo-French 
agreement, 2nd February^ 1888. 

French estimates, 120,000 sq. km. but generally supposed to Area, 
be only 10,000 sq. km. (3860 square miles); British estimation: 
43,320 sq. m. 

Population 200,000 estimated officially 1890; 50,000 1897. Popuiation. 
(Somali and Afar or Danakil); probably much larger. 

The possession embraces Obock witii its territories, to which Divisions, 
belong the island of Dumejra, Dshezira Soba, Les Freres and the 
Musha Islands in Gubet el Kharaib; further Tadshura, Ambabo, 
Dullul, Sagallo, Dshibuti together with the Interior belonging to 
these points. Roads lead to Shoa and Ilarar. 



Possessi.m. The points ou the coast form the actual possession of France, 

and are all occupied, ^\hereas the interior of the Afar Country can 
only be considered a Sphere of Interest. The territory was organised 
as a Colony by a decree of the 20tli May, 1896. 

History. 1857. Henri Lambert appointed Consular Agent in Aden, 

Trenties. j^gg^^j.^^^,^| himself Avitli Aber Baker of Tadshura, who sold the 
stretch of land from Kas Ali and Uano to France for 10,000 
thalers. Lambert was murdered on the 4th of June, 1859. 

1861, January. Admiral Fleuriot de Langle installs Abu Baker 
as governor of Zejia. 

1862, March 11th. France purchases Obock from Ras Dumejra 
to Ras Ali. 

1872. Pierre Arnoux's treaty with Menelik of Shoa, by which 
the rights of the Negus are recognised. 

1883, March 17th. Italy attempts to obtain the protectorate 
over Gubet Kharaib. France occupies Obock officially. 

1884, October 18th. Tadshura becomes French by purchase. 

1885, May 20th. French Protectorate over Tadshura, Ambabo 
Sagallo, and Gubet Kharaib, and annexation of these territories the 
same year. England cedes the Musha Islands to France. 

1886, March 3rd. Obock becomes a penal colony for Arab 

1887, Division of Tadshura Bay between England and France. 

1888, January and February. France occupies Ras Dshibuti 
and regulates the East frontier hy convention with England of the 
2nd of February. 

1889, January 11th. Landing of the Russians in Sagallo under 
Atschiuoff (175 men, 6 priests). 18tli February, Bombardment of 

1896, May 20th. Organisation of the Colony, and removal of 
the governmental residence from Obock to Ras Dshibuti. 


A governor is responsible for the administration. Chief town Government, 
and port, Bds DshihuU, 3000 inhabitants. 

Italian Possession in North East Africa. 

For the single territories — Fossedimenti, protettorati Italiani official title. 
in Africa — there exist different official names: Eritrea, Assah, 
Costa del Benadir, Somalia Italiana. 

In consequence of the defeat of the Italians on the 1st March Frontiers. 
1896, at Adua, their possession in Africa is at present undergoing 
a political change. Omitting Abyssinia, which would never submit 
to an Italian protectorate as provided by the treaty of Utshali 2nd 
May 1889, the boundary lines may be defined as follows. They 
begin at Ras Kasar, 18'^ 2' North Latitude, and on the Falkat River, 
according to the Anglo-Italian treaty of May 1887, (Italian Green 
Book laid before the Italian Chamber 25th April 1888), run in a 
straight line to the right bank of the Barka, follow it in the direction 
of Kassala, which the Italians took and occupied in 1894, thence 
probably following the Lareb Eastward. Before the war of 
1895— 1896, the line extended (yl«^/o-/^rtl?rtw treaties 24th March and 
15th April, 1891, ratified on the 25th February 1890) from Clior 
Gash South-westerly towards the Atbara, followed this and the Semsen 
and Rabat to 35V2" Longitude East of Greenwich and to the 6th 
Parallel Northern Latitude. Proceeding along this Parallel to 40'' 
Longitude East of Greenwich, it then followed the undefined course 
of the Juba to its outlet into the Indian Ocean. The course of 
the Mareb may in future form the South frontier of the Italian 
possession adjoining Abyssinia. 

Towards the South-East of Ras Kasar, 18" 2' North Latitude, 
the coast of the Red Sea borders the Italian possession as far as 


Kalieita 12" 30' North Latitude. The ocean frontier starts agam 
near Hender Ziada in the Somali countr}', bends ronnd Cape Gnar- 
dafui, and ends at tlie month of tlie Juba. As tlie Frencli possession 
on tlie (inlf of Aden has no fixed frontiers in the West and East, 
and on the other hand INIenelik 11 of Ethiopia declared himself 
sovereign of the whole of the African East Horn in 1885, only 
the An(jIo-Ital}an Ayreemenfs of the 21th March mid 15th Apr'tl, 
lS!fl, the 5th ami 25th May, 1894, concerning the demarcation of 
British Somali Country, the Italian Sphere of Interest as well as the 
Somali Italiana, can be authoritative. 

Divisions. The Italian possession embraces Massowah with its territory, 

the Dahlak Archipelago, the i)rotectorate over Habab, Marea, and 
Beni Amer, the protectorate over Aussa and the Danakil coast, as 
well as all the Afar races depending on Aussa, Assab, the Baheita 
protectorate, and that over East and South Somali country (the races 
of Midshurtin near Obbia, Merihan, Ogaden, Hawiya Rahanwin) and the 
Gallaland as far as Dshub (Juba) thus, principally the Arussi-Galla 
land. For the present it is impossible to give an exact description 
of the Italian Dominion on the African East Horn, as the extent 
of the actual Abyssinian government there is unknown. Abyssinian 
outposts are stationed near Bia kaboka in the Gadaburssi Somali- 
land, and in the Marar Prairie (towards Ogaden), and Abyssinian 
bands raise tribute far into Ogaden, having in 1895 also ransacked 
Bardera on the Juba river. 

Area. 145,000 sq. km. (487,000 square miles), according to Italian 

statements 247,300 sq. km.; with the area of the Somali and Galla- 
lands 775,000 sq. km., including Abyssinia and Shoa, 1,676,000 
square miles. 

Population. The population was estimated in 1893, according to the state 

of affairs then prevailing, and was set down as 150,000 for the 
occupied territories; but when the whole area is taken into con- 


sideration, it would certainly amount to more than two millions, 
Abyssinia and dependencies always excepted. 

Massowah and the Interior, also Assab, direct possession Possession, 
(possedimento). The protectorate is formed by Habab, Marea, Beni 
Amer, Aussa, the Danakil coast, and Raheita, also the Somali 
territories. The Gallalands can only be taken as Sphere of Interest. 

The coast was visited by the Portuguese in the 15th Century. History. 

1520, Diego Lopez landed in Massowah. 

1557, Turks took Massowah, installing a Habab chief as gover- Frontier. 

, . , - /. -vx • 1 Re";nlation. 

nor with the title of Naib. 

1866, Turks formally cede Massowah to Egypt. 

1870, The Rubattino Company purchase Assab, and surrender 
it in 1879 to the Italian Government. Egyptian protest 1st July 1870. 

1874, Khedive Ismail Pasha occupies Keren and marches on Tigre. 

1882, July 5th. Law concerning the organisation and recognition 
of Assab as a colony. Occupied on the 9th January 1881. 

1884, Taking of Kassala. Raheita under Italian Protectorate. 

1885, February 6th. The Italians under San Marzano occupy 

1885, June. Italian protectorate over the Danakil coasts, 
2 December. Civil administration in Massowah. 

1887, January 26th. Defeat of the Italians at Dogali. 

1887, July otii. General Saletta's protectorate treaty with Kjin- 
tibai concerning Habab. 

1888. Conclusion of the protectorate treaty with Berehan, 
Sultan of Raheita, and acceptation of the protectorate by the 
Marea, (January). 

1888, December, 2nd. General Baldissera's Protectorate treaty 
with Deglel concerning the Beni Amer. 

1888, December, 6th. Treaty with the Sultan of Aussa respecting 
the protectorate (ratified 13th November, 1889). 


1889, Fobniar.v, 8tli, (lOth May). The Sultan of Obbia i)laces 
liimself iukKm- tin- Italian protectorate. In April and November the 
protectorate was exteniled, by a treaty with tlie Mitlshurtin Sultan, 
to the territory between 5" 33' and 8" 13' North I.atitude. 12th July, 
Occupation of Asmara. 29th September, Frontier Regulation with 

1S89. May 2nd. (25th Miazza 1881) Tn-aty of (ffsha/i, by which 
tiie Abyssinians bind themselves to accept the intervention of Italy 
in foreign attairs (ratified 29th September, 1889, Italian Green Book 
4th March 1890). This treaty was never recognised by Abyssinia 
(Paragraph 17, .l/>J/<n/.s//.- " it^hallautshal" ^ "pourra" or "devra"). — 
May 20th, Occupation of Keren. 

1890, January 1st. Incorporation of the Assab colony with 
Eritrea. — 14th January. The Italians enter Adua. 

1892, August 26th. The Sultan of Zanzibar cedes the coast of 
Obbia as far as Juba by lease to the Italians. Italian administration 
instituted September, 1893. 

1893, July 16th. Italian Government hands over the administra- 
tion of the Benadir ports (Merka, Brava, Maqdishu, Warsheik, Itala) 
for 3 years to Messrs. S. Filonardi and Co., who pay 160,000 
rupees annually to the Sultan. 

1896, March 1th. Battle of Abba Garima. 

1896, June 25th. Formation of the "Societa anonima com- 
merciale Italiana nei Benadir". (Somalia Italiana.) 

1897, January 7th. Publication of the terms of peace with Italy. 

Oovemiueiit A Governor superintends the administration of Eritrea, assisted 


by Royal Commissioners. 

Seat of GoveiTiment, Massowah, 16,000 inhabitants (1891). 



Itjopja, El Hdhasha, Ahessinien, Abyssinia, Ahyssinie, Abissinia, official title. 

Abyssinia borders in tlie Xorth on Eritrea, in the East on Frontiers, 
the Italian and French Danakil and Somalilaud, the territory of the D'^^'»»o"«- 
Italian Sphere of Interest; in the South on the protectorate of the 
I. B. E. A.; in the West on the conntries of the I. B. E. A. and 
the Mahdi's Empire. An exact topographical limitation is not possible. 
So niucli may be said, however that Abyssinia has no sea-port. 

The country is formed of provinces and the partial Kingdoms 
of Tigre, Amhara, Godsham, Shoa, Harar, and the Galla territory, 
on the left bank of the Abaj (upper course of the Blue Nile), 
Gudru, Djimma etc., then of Kaffa, Wallamo, and the Sidama terri- 
tories, and extends with the South frontier to the vicinity of the 
Rudolf and Stefanie Lakes, in the South East as far as the Erer 
and Webi Shebeli. The provinces governed by ''ras" are: Semien, 
Dembea, Tigre, Sakota, Begemeder, Yetzoo, Aroossi, Goorage, 
Marocco, Galla to the west of Kaffa, Harar, and Tchertcher. 

About 500,000 sq. km. (The Abyssians give 2,500,000.) Area. 

Population : 4:% millions. (The Abyssinians give 15,000,000.) Population. 

Absolute barbaro-tyrannical country under the rule of Negusa VasspssUm. 
Neghest ("King of Kings"), or Ati, at present Menelik II of Shoa, 
whose vassals are the monarchs of Tigre, Godsham, Galla lands, 
and Harar. Italy claimed in vain, on the strength of the treaty 
of Utshali 2nd May (1st October) 1889, the right of protection over 
Abyssinia. The latter never recognised the riglh but on the other 
hand frequently protested against it to tlie European Powers. 

Count Kinsky: "The Dii'Iomatisfs Handbook for Africa". 13 


History. An ancient Semitic empire originally consisting of five large in- 

rivatios. (dependent territories, whose inhabitants are monophisitic Christians, 
with kings fleeted from amongst themselves as Negusa Neghest. 
Once governed in the North by Byzantines. 1520, visited by the 
Portngnese, when they had already a considerable history. It is pro- 
bable that the empire extended over the whole African East Horn. 
Abyssinia's Mohammedan rival in the East, the Adel Empire (later 
Harar) arose abont 1300 A. D. and flonrished about 1500. 

1534, Invasion of the Galla into the Ethiopian Empire and 
settlement there. 

1536 to 1543, Wars of Muhammed Granj, monarch of Adel 
against Abyssinia; the Portuguese under Cliristoforo da Gama in 

1538 — 1539, Turks support the enemies of Abyssinia with an army. 

1680 — 1704, Invasion of the Galla in Central Amliara. 

1743 — 1807, Taking of the Galla territory by the Abyssinians. 

1766 — 1858, Civil war in the Sidama countries in the South 
of Shoa. 

1805 and following years, Lord Valentia, 1809 Salt, visit 
Abyssinia with presents from Britain. 

1843, June 7th, Conclusion of a trade and friendly treaty by 
Rochert d'Hericourt iti the name of King Louis FMlipye, between 
France and Abyssinia. This treaty is still in force. 

1846, Harris' British expedition to Shoa. 

1854 — 1855, Extinction of the ruling dynasties of Djimma, 
Kaha, and Ennerea. 

1858, Commencement of the Galla war of Negusa Neghest 

1864 — 1896, Subjection of the Galla by Ras Govanna and Ras 

1867 — 1868, Enghsh campaign, and taking of Magdala. 

1874, Egyptian war against Abyssinia. The Egyptians routed 
at Gura. 


1880, German mission to Abyssinia under Gerhard Rohlfs. 

1884, June 3rd, Treaty of Adua between Abyssinia, England, 
and Egypt. Negus retains the sovereignty over Bogos. 

1885, February 25th, Landing of Itahans in Massowah. — 
26th May, Harar deserted by the Egyptians. 

1886, January, Taking of Harar by tlie Shoans. MeueHk II 
declares himself sovereign of the whole African East Horn. 

1887, Defeat of the Italians near Dogali. 

1889, January 18th. APaissian expedition under Atshinoff attempts 
to advance upon Abyssinia across Obock. Atshinoff plants the Russian 
flag at Sagallo, but the French admiral Olry bombards the fortress, 
and carries off the Russians as prisoners to Obock. 

1889, May 2nd, Frotectorate treaty at Utshali with Italy (ratified 
29th September in Rome), extended in October to mutual protection. 

1889, May, Campaign against the Mahdi's followers and 10th 
March, death of Negusa Neghest John U. — Menelik II of Shoa 
became Negusa Neghest of Ethiopia. — 29th September, (additional 
clause, 1st October) Frontier regulation with Italy, by which the Negus 
recognises Italy's possessory rights. 

1889, October 22nd, Coronation of Menelik at Antotto. 

1890, British mission to Abyssinia under Sir G. H. Portal. 
1890 — 1894, Second Journey of the Russian Cossack officer 

Mashkotf to Harar and to Menelik II. 

1891, February 11th, Protest against the Utshali treaty. 
1895 — 1896, War between Abyssinia and Italy. 

1895, Russian expedition under Leontjeff to Abyssinia, and 
despatch of an Abyssinian legation to Moscow and St. Petersburg. 

1896, Summer, Deputation of Pope Leo XIII to Menelik II 
with reference to the liberation of the Italian prisoners. 

1896, October 26th, Treaty of Peace with Italy. Abolition of 
the Utshali treaty and recognition of Abyssinia's independence. 
After the expiration of a year, frontier regulation to follow. 


Government. 1897, Jaiiiiarv '21t\u Coucliisioii of Frauco-Abyssiuiau trade 


(•(Hivt'iition at Harar. British mission iiikKt Ucimell Kodd to Menelik II. 
The Negusa Negliest governs the extensive Empire through Ras 
or Governors of the provinces, and Shum or District Administrators. 
Imperial residence, Adc^is ahahd in Shoa. 50,000 inliahitants. 

Although tlie exact position of tlie European Powers is not quite 
clear, the Negusa Neghest is better disposed towards France, which 
has obtained a firm footing from Dshibuti in Harar and Shoa. The 
old convention (Alliance et commerce) of tlie 7th June, 1843, 
concluded by dTlericourt with Menelik's grandfather, Sahla Selassie 
of Shoa, stands France in good stead. Abyssinia is the only 
part of Africa in which Russia has recently had any direct and 
considerable political influence — an influence which many have 
wrongly attributed to the alleged resemblance of the Russian-Oriental 
to the Ethiopian creed. These religious propagandas reach far 
back into the past. The Abyssinian statesmen display towards 
England a reserve almost amounting to timidity. Abyssinia is 
completely cut off from the sea-coast. 



Parliamentary Papers 1882, Nr. 18; 1885, Nr. 11; 1886, Xr. 1 — Bluebook C 5GG8. — 
Jolowicz, Bibliotheca Aegyptiaca (Leipzig 1858, Supplement 1861). — Kremer von. A., Aegypten 
(Leipzig 1863). — Bonclietti, L'Egypte et ses progres sous Ismail Pacha (Marseille 1867). — 
Lane, An account of the manners and customs of the modern Egyptians (London 1871, 5th 
edition). — Stephayi, Das heutige Aegypten (Leipzig 1872). — Wyse, Egypt political, financial, 
strategical (London 1882). — Amici, L'Egypte ancienne et moderne (Alexandrie 1884). — 
Prince Ibrahim Hilmij, The Literature of Egypt and the Soudan from the earliest times 
to the year 1885 (London 1886). — Plauchut, L'Egypte et sa occupation anglaise (Paris 
1880). — Revue fran9aise 1891, pag. 372. — Britain's work in Egypt (Edinburg 1892). 

— Riissel H., The Soudan, cause, effect and remedy (London 1892). — Scott Keltic J., States- 
man's Yearbook, 1802, page 1054 etc. — Due d'Harcourt, L'Egypte et les Egyptiens 
(Paris 1893). — Neumann Th., Das moderne Aegypten (Leipzig 1893). — FircJcs A.. 
Freiherr ton, Aegypten 1894 (Berlin 1895 und 1896, 2 Bde.). — Revue diplomatique et 
coloniale (Paris 1894 seqq.). — Hron K., Aegypten und die agyptische Frage (Leipzig 1895). 

— Alis H., Promenade en Egypte (Paris 1895). — Pensa H., L'Egypte et le Soudan 
Egyptien (Paris 1895). — Hertslet E., The Map of Africa by Treaty (London 1896, 3 Vols ) 
I, pp. 259—262; III, 1072—1074. 

The 3Iah(li's Dominion. 

Colborn, With Hicks Pasha in the Soudan (London 1885). — Royle, The Egyptian 
campaigns 1882— 1885 (London 1886, 2 Vols.). — Wilson C. T. and Felkin R. TF., Uganda 
and the Egyptian Soudan (London 1887, 2 Vols.). — Buchta, R., Der Sudan (Leipzig 1888). 

— Emin Pascha, Eine Sammlung von Reisebriefen und Berichten Dr. Emin Pascha's 
(Leipzig 1888. English: London 1888). — Wingate F. R., Mahdiism and the Egyptian 
Soudan (London 1891). — GessiR., Sette anni nel Sudan egiziano (Milano 1891). — Riissel II., 
The Soudan, cause, effect and remedy (London 1892). — Chaille-Long Bey, L'Egypte et 
ses provinces perdues (Paris 1892). — OJirwalder J., Aufstand und Reich des Mahdi im 
Sudan (Innsbruck 1892. English: London 1892). — Vita Hassan, Die Wahrheit iiber 
Emin Pascha, die agyptische Acquatorialprovinz und den Sudan (Berlin 1893, 2 Bde.). — 
Statin Pascha R., Feuer und Schwert im Sudan (Leipzig 1896; English: London 1896). 

— I. R. United Service, I, 41 (1897): 65—79: The Dongola Expedition of 1896. — 
AtteridyeA. H., Towards Khartoum. The story of the Soudan war of 1896 (London 1897). 


Maltzan, Freiherr ron, Reise in den Regentschaften Tunis und Tripolis (Leipzig 
1870, 3 J{de.). — Petcrmann's Mittheilungen 1887, pag. 28. — Borsari F., Geogi-afia 
e storica ctnologica dclla Tripolitania c Fczzan etc. (Napoli 1888). — Nachtiyal G., Sahara 
und Sudan (Berlin 1879, 1881, 1889 3 Vols.). — Rohlfs G., Kufra (Leipzig 1881). — RoheccM- 
Bricchetti L., Tripolitania (Roma 1896J. 

(Jonnt Kinsky: "Tlic Diplonnatisfa Handbook for Africa". 14 



Dilhan, Ilistoirc abrcgi'o ilc la ivf^encc do Tnnisic (Paris 186G). — Desfossis, La 
Tunisio (Paris 1S77). — .lonrnal Ofrtciol de la Ri'imbliquo Franvaisc, 27 et 28 Mai 1881. 

— Behm-M'agner, Bevolkcrung dcr Erdc (Gotha 1882, pag. 50 f.). — Le Journal Ofii- 
cicl de Tunis. — Playfair E., Handbook for Algeria and Tunis (London 1887). — El 
Kaid el Tunisia. — Petermann's Mittlioilungen, 18S7, pag. 28. — Riviere A., La Tunisic 
(Paris 1887). — Mai/er, Cahier coloniaux, 1»89, pag. ;585. — Ashbee H. S., A biblio- 
graphy of Tunisia from the earliest times to the end of USS (London 1889). — Lallc- 
mattd C, La Tunisie, pays de protectorat fran^ais (Paris 1891). — P. H. X., La polititiue 
fVan^aise en Tunisie (Paris 1891). — Fitzner E., Die Kcgentschaft Tunis (Berlin 1895). 

— Clarin de la Eire, Histoire generalo de la Tunisie (Paris 1895). — Planet E., 
Corrcspondance des beys do Tunisie et des consuls de France avec la cour 1577 — 1830 
(Paris 1893—1895). — Livre Jaune (Traites Tunisiens) 1896. — Kenseignemcnts coloniaux 
et documents publies par le comitt' dc rAfri(iue Fran(;aise Nr. L Lc reglement Italo- 
Tunisiens etc.; Nr 6. — La Tunisie, 1. Histoire et description (Paris 1896, 2 Vols). — L'Afrique 
Frani^aise 1896, pp. 46, 83. — jffer^s^e/ ^., The Map of Africa by Treaty (London 1896). 11, 
pp. 5i8— 553, 906—915. 

Grammont, Histoire d'Alger sous la domination turque 1815—183.0 (Paris 1857). — 
Nettement, Histoire do la conquete d'Alger (Paris 1869). — Bulletin Ofliciel du Gouverne- 
ment general de TAlgerie 1873 seqq. — Journal Officiel de I'Algerie. — Annuaire gent'ral 
de I'Algerie. — Sautaijra, Legislation de I'Algerie (Paris 1878). — Idem, Relation entre 
la France et la regence d'Alger au 17nie siecle (Paris 1882). — Guffarel P., L'Algerie 
(Paris 1883). — Playfair E L., Handbook of Algeria and Tunis (London 1887). — Eousset, 
L'Algerie de 1830 a 1840 (Paris 1887,2 Vols.). — Le Eoy-Beaulieu, L'Algerie et la Tunisie 
(Paris 1887). — Amat, Le M'zab et les M'zabites (Paris 1888). — Playfair E. L., A 
bibliography of Algeria (London 1888). —Eousset C, La conquCte de TAlgerie (1841— 1857) 
(Paris 1889, 2 Vols ). — Eohin, Le M'zab et son annexion a la France (Alger 1889). — Idem, 
Bibliography of the Barbary States (London 1889). — Mercier E., Histoire de I'Afrique 
septentrionale (Paris 1890 3 Vols.). — Choisy M. A., Documents relatifs a la mission dirigee 
au sud de I'Algerie (Paris 1890). — De2)orter, La question du Touat etc. (Paris 1891). — 
Alis B., La conquete du Tchad (Paris 1891). — Ferry J., Le gouvernement de I'Algerie 
(Paris 1892). — Vignon L., La France en Algerie (Paris 1893). — Vuillot P., I/Exploration 
du Sahara. Etude historique et gi'ographique (Paris 1895) — Malher Col., La question du 
Touat (Paris 1895). — Vicarez M., Au sujet du Touat (Alger 1896). — Gognyer A.. Occu- 
pation de Tarriere-terre du Maghreb (Paris 1896). — Journal Officiel, 1 Janvier 1897. — 
HertsletE., The Map of Africa by Treaty (London 1896), I, pp. 287—290. — Foureau F. 
Au Sahara (Paris 1897). 


Bernard, Quatre mois dans le Sahara (Paris 1881). — Erckmann, Le Maroc moderne 
(Paris 1885). — Jannasch, Die deutsche Handelsexpedition in Marokko (Berlin 1886). — 
Stutfield, El Moglireb (London 1886). — De la Martiniire E.. Bibliographic du Maroc, 
1844—1886 (Revue de geographic 1886, Aofit). — Foucauld Ch. de, Reconnaissance au 
Maroc 1883—1884 (Paris 1888). — Ide7n, Morocco (London 1889). — Cora, Cosmos, IX, 
pag. 73. — Thomson ./., Travels in the Atlas and Southern Morocco (London 1889). — 
Blackwood's Magazine, 1889, page 412. — Leared A., Morocco and the Moors (London 
1891). — Bonsai S., Morocco as it is (London 1893). — Diercks (?., Marokko und die 
deutschen Interessen (Berlin 1893). — Wolfrom G., Le Maroc (Paris 1893). — Picard E., 
El Moghreb al Aksa, une mission Beige au Maroc (Bruxelles 1893;. — Diercks G., Meine 


Matcrialicn zur Kcnntnis und Beurtheilung des Schcrifenreiches and der Marokko-Frage 
(Berlin 1894). — Merry c Colom Fr., Mi embajada extraordinaria a Marruecos en 18G3 
(Madrid 1894) — Libro rojo 1894. — Canizares y Moyano E., Apuntes sobre Marruecos 
(:\[adrid 1895). — Harris W. B., Tafilet (London 1895). — Hertslet E., The Map of 
Africa by Treaty (London 189G), II, pp. 802—809, 894—902, 1062—1066. 

Spanish Possessions (Presidios, Canaries, Gaboon, Islands in the 

Guinea Gulf). 

Chil y Narctnjo G., Estudios historicos . . . de las Islas Canarias (Palmas d. g. C. 
1876 et 1880). — Sorela A., Les possessions espag-noles en Afrique (Paris 1885). — Gaceta 
de Madrid 1885 seqq. — Diplomatic and Consular Reports from Spain and her Colonies 
(London 1891). — Revista geographica commercial 1886, Nr. 25. — Iradier M., Africa 
(victoria 1887, 2 Vols.). — Baumann 0., Fernando Poo (Wien 1888). — Boletim da Sociedad de 
Geographia (Madrid 1888, pag. 157). — Bulletin Societe de Geographie commerciale (Paris 1888, 
Nr. 7). — Coello F., La cuestion del Rio Muni (Madrid 1889). — Boletim da Sociedad de Geographia 
(Madrid 1890, pag. 7). — Verneau R., Cinq annees de sejour aux iles Canaries (Paris 1890). 

— Eeparaz G., Espana en Africa (Madrid 1891). — Wayner-Supan, Bevolkerung der 
Erde, Vllt. (Gotha 1892, pag. 170). — Eeparaz G., Melilla. Nociones de politica hispano- 
raarroqui (Madrid 1893). — Millares A., Historia general de las Canarias (Las Palmas 
1893). — Bulletin des lois de la Republique Fran^aise Nr. 888. — Hertslet E., The Map 
of Africa by Treaty (London 1896), II, pp. 882—902. 

Rio d'oro. 

Boletim da Sociedad de Geographia (Madrid 1885, pag. 333). — ^Globus, 1885, 18 
und 21. — Gimenez S., Espana en el Africa Septentrional (Madrid 1885). — Revista goo- 
graphica commercial L (1885— 1886, page 11; IL 1885—1887, pp. 53, 100, 250). — Boletim da 
Sociedad de Geographia (Madrid 1885, pag. 191, 1886, pag. 1). — Perez del Toro F. Espana 
en el Nordeste de Africa (Madrid 1886 et 1892). — Bonelli,'E\ Sahara (Madrid 1887). — 
Gaceta ofticial, 6. Abril 1S87. — Blackwood's Magazine, 1889, pag. 412. — Bulletin Socit'tt' 
de Geographie (Paris 1889, pag. 180). — Revue Fran(;aise, 1891, pag. 429. — Hertslet E., 
The Map of Africa by Treaty (London 1896), H, pp. 886, 887. 

Madeira, Azors, Cap Verde Islands. 

Morclct, lies Avorcs (I'aris 1860). — ScJiultze, Die Inscl Madeira (Stuttgart 1864). — 

— Doelter C, Die A'ulkanc der Capverdischen Inseln und ihre Producte (Leipzig 1881). — 
Brown A. S., Madeira and the Canary Islands (London 1891). 


.Journal Ofticiel, 18 Octobre 1882, 20 Juillet, 28 Octobre 1890, Fevricr, 16 Mars 1891, 
14 ct 27 Avril 1891. — Annales Senegalaiscs de 1854 a 1885, suivies des traites passes 
avcc les indigenes (Paris 1885). — Annuaire du Senc'gal 1888 scqq. — Le Brim Renaiid, 
Lcs possessions fran^aiscs de TAfriijue occidentale (Paris 1885). — Ancclle, Les explorations 
au Sent'gal (Paris 1887). — Economiste framjais, 21 Janvier et 21 Juin 1888. — Faid- 
herbe, Le Si'megal (Paris 1889). —Bulletin Societe de Geographie (Paris 1889, pag. 180).— 
Idem Bordeaux. 1889, page 614. — Wagner-Supan, Bevolkerung der Erde, VIIL, pag. 161. 

— Revue francaise 1800, pp. 308 et 488; 1891, pag. 112. — Du Sorbier de la Tourasse 
J., Au pays de Woloffs. Souvenir d'un traitant du Sen^al (Tours 1897). — Donnet G., 
Une mission au Sahara occidental (Paris 1896). — Hertslet E., The Map of Africa by 
Treaty (London 1896), II, pp 539, 640. 14* 


French Soudan, diuinon, rvorv Coast. 

IMuebook, (.' 5it05. — Jourual Oftiricl. liS Mars 1883. — Gallicni, Voyage an Soudan 
franvais (Paris 18S3). — Faidherhe, Lo Soudan frani,ais (Lillo 188G). — Faidhcrhe^ Lo 
St'ncgal. La Franco dans I'Afriqiie occidentalo (Paris 1889). — Peroz E., Au Soudan franyais 
(Paris 1889). — Mayer, Cahiers coloniaux, pag. 118. — Kevue fran^aise, 1889, pag. 705.— 
Les Colonies fran(,'aises (Paris 1890, Vols. V ct VI, pp. 160—230). — ProC('s-vcrbau.\ 
et rapports du Congres colonial national (Paris 1800). — Gaffarel P., Lo Senegal et le 
Soudan franvais (Paris 1890). — Kevue gt'ograpliiciue, 1890, pag. 210. — La McUacoree ct 
la colonic de Sierra Leone (Paris 18901 — Wagner-Supan, Bevolkerung der Erde, VIIL 
(Gotlia 1891, pag. 105). — Journal Ofticiel, 4 et 17 Ao&t 1891. — Kcnseignements sur 
la situation des Colonies Nr. 35 — 38 (Paris 1891). — Armand Ste., Note sur les etablisse- 
mcnts Frani^ais de la Cote d'or (Paris 1891). — Binger, Cap., Du Niger au golfo do 
(luini'e par le pays de Kong et le Mossi (Paris 1891, 2 Vols.). — Idem, Deux campagnes 
au Soudan franvais (Paris 1891). — Parliamentary Papers 1892, Nr. 7. — Sandenal de, 0., 
Soudan franvais (Paris 1893). — liangon A., Le Bondou. Etude de geographic et d'histoire 
Soudanicnnes de 1681 a nos jours (Bordeaux 1894). — Peroz, Commandant, Eecit de cam- 
pague 1891 et 1892 (Paris 1895). — I^e Journal Ofticiel de I'Afrii^ue occidentale Fran^aise. 

— Hertslet E., The Map of Africa by Treaty (London 1896), II, pp. 582—587, 589—591. 

British Possessions in West Africa. 

Parliamentary Papers 1865—1869. — Bluebook, C 670, C 4642, C 4957, C 5357, 
C 5373, C 5905. C 6354, and Reports of the Colonial oftice. — Papers relating IL M. colonial 
possessions (London 1872, seqq.). — London Gazette, 1875. — Deutscher Keichsanzcigcr 
vom 30. Januar 1875 und 4. December 1888. — Griffith, Sierra Leone, past, present and 
future (London 1881). — Journal Officiel, 28 Mars 1883. — Banbury G. A., Sierra Leone 
(London 1888). — London Gazette, 15th January 1886 and 4th December 1888. — La 
McUacoree et la colonic de Sien-a Leone (Paris 1890). — Deutsches Kolonialblatt, 1890, 
15. Juli. — Journal Ofticiel, 17 Aout 1891. — Ingham E., Sierra Leone after a hundred 
years (London 1894). — Colonial reports Nr. 185 and 189. — La main-d'oeuvre aux 
colonies. Documents Ofticiels. Bruxelles 1897 (Institut coloniale internationale). — Hertdet E., 
The Map of Africa by Treaty (London 1896), I, pp. 365—384, 388-402, 405—432 
484—530; II, pp. 554— 567, 575— 581, 589—591, 596-604, 674—679; III, pp. 1048 -1058, 


Parliamentary Papers 1892, Nr. 107. — TTnited States' foreign IJelations, 1879 se(i(|. 

— Waiiicennans II., Liberia. Histoire de la fondation d'un Etat Nigre Libre (Bruxelles 
1885). — M= Cants Steivart T., Liberia (New- York 1886). — Baurzeix P., La Kepublique 
de Liberia (Paris 1887). — Dutry, Liberia, son histoire, sa constitution et ses ressources (Gand 
1887). — Petermann's Mittheilungen 1888, pag. 248. — Buttiko/er J., Liberia (Amsterdam 
1890, 2Bde.). — M<^ I'herson J. H. T., History of Liberia (Baltimore 1891). — CooJc 0. 
Fr., Third Keport to the Board of Managers of the New-York State Colonisation Society. 
(New York 1896). — Hertdet E., The Map of Africa by Treaty (London 1896), II, pp. 
575—581, 777—786. 


Zoller 11. , Das Togoland (Stuttgart 18S5). — Kuluische Zeitung vom 25. April 1887 

— Deutsche WeiCbucher 1881 ft'. (1. Februar 1886). — Deutscher Keichsanzeiger 1884 ft". — 
Danekelmann, Freiherr von, Mittheilungen aus den deutschen Schutzgebieten (1888 ff.j. 

— Deutsche Kolonialzeitung 1888 ft', besonders 10. Juli 1890. — Deutsches Kolonialblatt 
1889 ff. — Petermann's Mittheilungen, 1890 pag. 194; 1897, pag. 270 f. 



Bluebook, C 5905. — Burton B., Mission to Gelele king of Dahomey (London 
18G4, 2 Vols.). — Les Colonies fran^aises (Paris, Vol. VI). — Albeca, A. L., Les etablissements 
fran9ais du golfe de Benin (Paris 1889). — Nineteenth Century, 1890, October. — Revue 
francjaise, 1890, pag-. 694. — Nicolas W., L'Expedition du Dahomey en 1890 (Paris 1892). 

— Barbou, Histoire de la guerre an Dahomey (Paris 1893). — Dalzel, The history of 
Dahomey (London 1893). — Journal Ofticiel, 22 Juin 1894. — Auhlet E., La guerre an 
Dahomey (Paris 1 8^4, 2 Vols.). — Decoeur, Bulletin du Comite de I'Afrique fran^aise, 
1895, Nr. 7. — Fou E, Le Dahomey (Paris 1895). — iV Albeca A. L. , La France au 
Dahomey (Paris 1895). — Toutee, Dahome, Niger, Touareg (Paris 1897). — Hertslet E., 
The Map of Africa by Treaty (London 1896, 3 Vols.), I, pp. 247—257; III, page 998. — 
Reichsanzeiger, 19. October 1897. — Deutsches Kolonialblatt, 27. October 1897. 

C amerooii. 

Bluebook 1880, (Slave Trade)Nr.4. —Deutsche WeiBbiicher 1884 ff. —Bulletin des lois 
de la EepubliquePran^aise Nr. 888 (Paris l^Qb). — ReichenoH\ Die dcutsche Kolonie Kame- 
run (Berlin 1885). — National-Zeitung, 15. Februar 1885. — Deutscher Reichsanzeiger, 
20. Juni 1885, August 1886, 10. Juli 1890. — Correspondence respecting affaires in the 
Cameroons (London 1885). — Danckelmann, Freiherr von, Mittheilungen aus den deutschen 
Schutzgebieten (Berlin 1888 seqq.). — Deutsches Kolonialblatt, 1888 tf. (besonders 1894, 
Nr. 8). — Journal Ofticiel, 14 Aout 1894. — Deutsche Kolonialzeitung, 1889 ff. — Morgen 
C., Durch Kamcrun von Slid nach Nord (Leipzig 1893). — Passcmje S., Adamaua 
(Berlin 1895). — KoscUitzky, Deutsche Kolonialgeschichte (2 Bde.). — Zintgraff £"., Nord- 
Kamerun (Berlin 1895). — Hertslet E.. The Map of Africa by Treaty (London 1896), II, 
pp 596-604, G 12— 614, 658—662; III, pp. 999-1003, 1048—1058. 

French Congo. 

Parliamentary Papers 1895, Nr. 5. — Bluebook, C 4279. — Bulletin des lois de la 
Rt'publique Fran^aise Nr. 888 (7 Fevrier 1885). — Journal Officiel, Fevrier 1885, 28 Avril 
1886, 3 Mai 1891. — Compte rendu des seances de la Societe de Geographic de Paris 
1885—1896. — La Gazette geographique 1886, pag. 410. — Iradier M., Africa (Victoria 
1887,2 Vols.).— Bulletin Societe de Geographic commercialo (Paris 1888, Nr. 7). —Santos 
e Silva J. E. dc, Esbo(,o historico do Congo e Loango nos tempos modernos (Lisboa 1888). 

— Guiral-Kinckel d'Hereulais, Le Congo Fran^ais (Paris 1889). — Les Colonies fran- 
(;aises (Paris 1890, Vol. VI, pp. 1—60). — Proccs-verbaux et rapports du Congres colonial 
national (Paris 1890). — Revue fran^aise, 1891, pag. 929. — Wagner-Siqmn, Bevolkcrung 
der Erde, VIII. (Gotha 1892, pag. 170 ff.). — Deutsches Kolonialblatt, 1894, Nr. 8. — 
Journal Officiel, 14 Aout 1894. — Mouvement geographique 1894, pag. 72; 1891, pag. 60; 1888, 
pp. 62, 242. — Documents parlamentaires 1894, 28. Mai, pp. 843—856. — Revue generale. 
Aout 1804. '- Hertslet E., The Map of Africa by Treaty (London 1896), I, pp. 98, 99, 
207—215, 298; III, pp. 999, 1059^ 

Tlie Congo State. 

Parliamentary Papers 1894, Nr. 4, 5, 15. — Bluebook, C 7360, C 3885. — Bulletin 
Officiel dc I'Etat Indcpendant du Congo 1887, pag. 49. — Wauters A J., Les Beiges au 
Congo (Bruxelles 1884). — Petermann's Mittheilungon 1885 pag. 136 tf. — Faure Ch., La 
conference africainc do Berlin (Geneve 1885). — Documents diplomatiques. Afifaires du 
Congo 1884—1887. — Stanley H. M., The Congo and the founding of its Free State 
(London 1885), II, pp. 378—458. — Le Mouvement geographique 1885—1896 (1888, pag. 
62; 1890, pp. 78 et 91. 1891, pag. 60; 1894, Nr. 8, pp.29, 32,71, 74 et 95; 1895, pp. 26-38, 


49). - Moynier G , La Fouaation dc I'Etat hul.'ponaant dii Congo an point do vuo 
jnridiquo (Paris 18S7). — Banning, Le partagc politiiiue do rAfri.iuo (1888). — Du Fief, 
"lUilletin Societo Beige do geographio 1890, pp. 377-467. - Docnnents diplon.ati.inos 
•> Ser. 1884, Vol. XII. — bulletin. Ortlciel. 1888, pag. 210; 1891, pag. 213 ; 1894. pag. 22.— 
Berlin Act. 2Gtli l-ebriiarv 1886. - Brussels Act 2nd July 1890. - Wagner-Supan, Bo- 
volkerungder Erdo. Vlll. "(Uotha 1S92. pp. 173-178). - Le Congo iUnstrcS 1893 - 
Livrc jaunc 189>. - Kevno des Deux Mondes. 1895, pp. 477, 953 - DroOf/mans H., 
Le Congo (Bruxelles lf=9o). — Cha^aux A., Le Congo historiquo, diplomati^iuc, physi.iue. poli- 
tique ot'c. (Bruxelles 1S94). — Frederichs J.. Manuel de g.'ographie de TEtat Lid.'pcndant 
du Congo (Bruxelles 1895). — Wautds A. J, Bibliographic du Congo 1880-1895 (Bruxelles 
1895) pp. 21—36. 301—309. — Pctermami's Mitthcilungen 1896, pag. 8S. — Ilinde S. 
L The Fall of the Congo Arabs (London 1897). - Hertslet E., The Map of Africa by 
Treaty (London 189G), I, pp. 48-100. 191-240; III, pp. 1008-1015, 1017, 1021, 1022, 
1041-1047. 1059 — 100)1. 

British Islands in the Athmtic Ocean. Wali'ish Bay. 

Colonial Oftico List Nr. 275. — Melliss, St. Helena a physical, historical and toi)0- 
graphical description (London 1875). — Gill, Six month's residence on the i.sland of Ascen- 
sion (London 1878). — Brooke, History of St. Helena. — Deutsches Angra PcqueHa-WeiU- 
buch, pag. 45. 

Niger Coast Protectorate. 

London Gazette, 5th June 1885, 13th May 1893. — Deutsches WeiCbuch 1888, VII 
pag. 51. — Moclder-Fen-ijman A. F., Up the Niger, narrative of Major Claude Macdonald's 
mission to the Niger and Benue etc. (London 1892). — Hertslet E., The Map of Africa 
by Treaty (London 1896), I, pp. 439—479, 573, 574; H, pp. 658—601; III, pp.. 972— 975; 
ygl— 984. — Diplomatic and consular reports on trade and finance. Africa report for the 
vears 1895—1896 of the administration of the Niger Coast Protectorate (London 1897). 

Niger Territories. 

Report by Dr. Baikie on the geographical position of the countries in the neighbour- 
hood of the Niger (London 1863). — Boldfs G., Quer durch Afrika (Leipzig 1874, 2 Bde.)- 
— Thomfson J., Sokoto (London 1886). — London Gazette, 13th July 1884, 26th August 1886 
and 20th October 1887. — Richardson IL, Story of the Niger (London 1888). — Bluebook, 
C 5905. — Deutsches Weifibuch 1889, 7. 1h.. — Monteil, De St. Louis k Tripolis (P^ris 1895). — 
Annual reports of the Eivcr Niger Company. — L'Afritiue fran(jaise, 1896, pag. 40. — Jtegels- 
perger G., La France et I'Angleterre sur le Niger. La liberte de la navigation du fleuve 
(Paris 1896). — Fillet A., La Liberte de Navigation du Niger. (Paris 1896.) — Hertslet E., 
The Map of Africa by Treaty (London 1896), I. pp. 439—479; H, pp. 658-061; HI, pp. 
972—975, 981—984, 1018, 1019. 

Tshad Lake Countries. 

Barth 11. , Keiscn und Entdeckungen in Nord- und Central-Afrika (Gotha, 1857 ff. 
5 Bdo.). — Rohl/s G., Quer durch Afrika (Leipzig 1874, 2 Bde.). — Nachtigal G., Sahara 
und Sudan (Berlin 1879 ff., 3 Bde.). — Thomson J., Sokoto (London 1886). — Stuu- 
dinger J., Im Herzen der Haus,sa-Lander (Ikrlin 1889). — Monteil, Dc St. Louis a Tripolis 
par le lac Tchad (Paris 1895). — Uohinson Ch. II., Haussaland (London 1897). 

Portuguese West Africa (Guinea, Senegal, Angola). 

Parliamentary Papers 1890— 1891, Nr. 2, 1894, Nr. 15. — Bluebook, C 5918, C 6212 
and C 6370. — Cordeiro L., I'ortugal and the Congo (London 1883). — Correspondence 


relative to Xegotiations between Great Britain and Portugal for conclusion of the Congo 
Treaty 1882—1884 (London 1884). — Boletin da Sociedade de Geographia de Lisboa 1885 

— 1886, 1887 Nr. (5 et 8, 1889 pag. 405. — La Gazette Geographique 1886, pag. 410. — Libr. 
blanc. 1887. — Deutscher Keichsanzeiger, 30. December 1886 und 1. Juli 1887. — 
Petermann's Mittheilungen 1888, pag. 248. — Bulletin Societe de Geographic commerciale 
(Bordeaux 1888, Nr. 4). — Santos e Silra de J. E., Esbo^o historico do Congo e Loango nos 
tempos modernos (Lisboa 1888). — Carvalho H. A. de, Expedicao Portugueza ao jMuatianvua 
(Lisboa 1889)- — Idem, O Lubuco (Lisboa 1880). — Brosselard II., La Guinee portugaise et les 
possessions fran^aises voisines (Lille 1890). — Carralho H. A. de, Lunda onosEstados do Mua- 
tiAnvua dominio da soberania de Portugal (Lisboa 1890). — London Gazette, 26 th August 1890. — 
Weale J. P., The truth about the Portuguese in Africa (London 1891). — Diario do governo, 
12. October 1891. — Deutsches Kolonialblatt, 15. Juli 1890, 1891 pag. 520. — London 
Gazette, 15th May 1891. — Diario 22nd June 1892. — Mouvement geographique 1894, Nr. 8. 

— Petermann's Mittheilungen 1896, pag. 89. — Van Iseghem A., Les iles portugaises de 
I'Afrique (Bruxelles 1897). — Scottish Geographical Magazine, Yol. XII, Nr. 11. — 
Ilertdet E., The Map of Africa by Treaty (London 1896), II, pp. 683-692, 712—747; 
III, pp. 1004 -101. J. 

German South West Africa. 

Angra PequeSa (London 1884). — AiTangement between Great Britain and Germany 
relative to their respective Spheres in Africa (London 1885). — Deutsches AVeiCbuch, Angra 
PequeSa, 1885. — Deutscher Keichsanzeiger, 2. December 1885, 7. April 1886, 30. De- 
cember 1886. — Mittheilungen aus den deutschen Schutzgebieten, 1887 ff. — Deutsche 
Kolonialzeitung von 1888 ab. — Deutsches Kolonialblatt, 1889 bis 15. Juli 1890. — Schinz IL, 
Deutsch Slidwest-Afrika (Oldenburg und Leipzig 1891). — Wagner-Supan, Bovolkerung der 
Erde, VIII, (Gotha 1892, pag. 186). — Petermann's Mittheilungen, 1894 pag. 194, 1896 
pag. 88. — Dore K., Deutsch-Sildwest-Afrika (Berlin 1896). — Francois U. von, Nama 
und Damara (Magdeburg 1896). — Hertslet E , The Map of Africa by Treaty (London 1896). 
I, pp. 317—319 : II, pp. 608-611. — Biilow F.J. von^ Drei Jahre im Lande Ilcndrik Witboois 
(Berlin 1895, 2. Auflage 1897). 

Cape Colony. 

London Gazette 18th January and 15th April 1806. - Chase J. C. and Wilmoth A.. 
History of the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope (London 1870). — TroUo2)e A., South 
Africa (London 1878, 2 Vols.). — The general directory and guidebook to the Cape of Good 
Ilojjc and its dependencies as well as the Free State, Transvaal and Natal. — Granville, 
Guide to South Africa (7th edition, London \m\).— Statham F. R, Blacks, Boers and Britisli 
(London 1882). ~ Cape Gazette, Extraordinary, 25th March 1885. — South African books 
on native affairs 1885—1896 (Capetown), — The Cape of Good Hope Govrnment Gazette 
1885. — Parliamentary „Ueports" in „Tho Times". — Colonial Office's listes 1885—1896. — 
Noble, Official handbook History, productions and rcssourccs of the Capo of Good Hope. 
(Capetown, 1886 seqci.). — Moodie D. C. F., The history of the battles of the British, the 
Boers and the Zulus in Southern Africa (Capetown 1888, 2 Vols.). — Gibbs E. J., England 
and South Africa (London 1889). — Journal Manchester Geographical Society 1889, page 201. 

— Theul G. M., History of South Africa the republics and native territories from 1854 to 
U872 (i>ondon 1889). — Li'lu P., L'Afriquc du Sud. Histoiro do la colonic anglaisc du Cap 

de Bonne-Esperance et de scs annexes (Paris 1890). — London Gazette, 10th October 1884 July 1887, 2nd August 1887, 20th December 1889, 17th January 1890, 15th May 1891. 

— Bluebook, C 4588, C 4194, C 4263, C 4590, C 4643, G 5022, C 5143, C 5331, C 6524 
C 5918, C 6217, C 7962 and „Reports' . — Silver S. W. and Comp., Handbook to South 
Africa (1st edition 1880, 4th edition London 1891). — Jw<a's Map of South Africa, 1 : 2,500.000 
(London 1891). — Murraij li. W., South Africa from Arab domination to British Jiule 


(London 1S91V — Waguer Siiprtn. llcvolkcrnng: dcr Erdc, YIII. (fJotha 1802, pap-. 197.) 
— Wori</old M'. B., ISouth Africa (LonJon 18lt5). — Noble J., Handbook III. off. of the 
Capo Sand onth Africa (Capetown 1896). — Petermann's Mittheilungcn 1896, pag. 88. — 
Hertslet E., The Map of Africa by Treaty (London 1806), T, pp. .^41—302; II pp. 672, 673. 


JIoh<b /;., Siobcn .Tahrc in Siid-Afrika (Wien 1880, 2 Bde.). — London Gazette, .30th 
.laniiary 188."). — ^facl•eu~ie J., Austral- Africa loosing- it or ruling it (London 1887, 
-2 Vols.). — r.luebook. C 4043, C 4432, C 4104, C 4.588, C 5488, C 5918 und C 7962. — 
JUnitscher Keichsanzeiger, 9. Mai 1801. — Wagner-Supan, I'eviilkcrung der Erdc, YIII. 
(Gotha 1802, pag. 195). — HertsUt £"., The Map of Africa by Treaty (London 1896), I, pp. 
334—337 : III, pp. 090, 001. 

Rhodesia, British Zambcsia. 

TojTCS Ca???/;o5i?., Tortugal Inglaterra en el Africa Austral (Boletim da Sociedad de 
Geographia (Madrid 1880, pag. 333). _ London Gazette, 25th April 1888, 20th December 1880, 
26th August 1890, 27th July 1894. — Bluebook, C 4643, C 5363, C 5524, C 5918, C 6212, 
C 6370, C 6G90, C 7383, C 7637. — Walk}- H., Nyassaland, Great Britain's case against 
l^ortugal (London 1890). — Proceedings of the Koyal Geographical .Society (London 1890, 
pp. 150, 649). — MeUo C. de, Os Inglcses na Africa Austral (Lisboa 1890). — Siher S. 
IV. and Comp., Handbook to South Africa (London 1891, pag. 382). — Paiva de Andrade. 
Manica (London 1891). — Mathers E. P., Zambesia (London 1891). — Wagner-Supan, 
Bevulkcrung der Erde, VIII. (Gotha 1892, pag. 183). — Knight E. F., Khodesia of today 
(London 1895) — Machado J., Territorio de Manica etc. (Boletin Sociedade de Geographia 
(Lisboa 1895, pag. 491). — Colquhoon A., Matabeleland (London). — Wihnot A., Monomo- 
tapa (Rhodesia) (London 1896). — Sclous F. C, Sunshine and storm in Khodesia (London, 
1896). — Ki7ig J., Dr. Jameson's Eaid. Its causes and consequences (London 1896). — 
Baden-PoicellR.S.S.,TheMata.hele Campaign 1896 (London 1897). — /fer^s?e« J^., The Map 
of Africa by Treaty (London 1806, 3 Vols.) I, pp. 174— 100. Ill, pp. 987—980, 1037—1040. 

Ilritish Central Afi'ica and Protectorate (Nyassaland). 

Bluebook, C 7504, C 7611. — Scott. Geographical Magazine 1888, Nr. 6, 1889 page 
371. — Cordeiro L , La question du Zaire. Droits du Portugal (Lisbonne 1883.). — 
Proceedings of the Poyal Geographical Society (London 1890, page 713). — Fort- 
nightly Review^ 1890, page 140. — Markus Ferrao, La question souslevee entre I'An- 
gleterre ct le Portugal (Lisboa 1890). — Mello C. de, A questao Inglesa (Lisboa 1 890). — 
Idem, Os Ingleses na Africa Austral (Lisboa 1800). — Cnrvalho H. A. de, Os caes brl- 
tannicos ou a Nyassaland do Review Horace Waller (Lisboa 1890). — Iteis J. B., Os Portu- 
gueses na regiao do Nyassa (Lisboa 1890). — Barros Gomez H. de, A questao do Zumbo 
(Lisboa 1890). — London Gazette, 15th May 1891, 24th February 1893. — RanUn, D. J., 
The Zambesi and Nyassaland (London and Edinburg 1893). — London Gazette, 22nd 
February 1893. — Parliamentary Papers 1804, Nr. 6; 1805, Nr. 2. — British Central 
African Gazette 1896. — Johnston II., British Central Africa (London 1S97). — Ilertslct E., 
The Map of Africa by Treaty (London 1806), III, pp. 1025—1028. 

Oi'ange Republic. 

Vide Cape Colony and South African Republic — Bluebook, C 5238. — Jep)pe\s, 
Transvaal Almanac and Directory (Capetown). — Silver S. W. and Comp., Handbook to 
South Africa (London 1891, pages 431 seqq.) — Hertslet E., The Map of Africa by Treaty 
(London 1896), IL pp. 813—819. 


Basiitolaiid, Natal, Ziilulaiid, Tongolaiul. 

Vide Cape Colony. — Natal Bluebooks. — Natal Orclinances. — Natal Almanacs (Pieter- 
maritzburg). — Peace W., Our Colony of Natal (London 1884). — Natal Official handbook 
etc. (London 1886). — Chamber commercial journal (London 1888, page 59). — Silrer S. W. 
and Comp., Handbook to South Africa (London 1891, pages 427 seqq.). — Wagner-Supan, 
Bevulkerung der Erde, VIII. (Gotha 1892, pag. 1G6). — London Gazette, 7th March 1893, .jth 
November 1895. — Ihtssel R., Natal the land and its story (Pietermaritzburg 1894). — 
Precis of information concerning Zululand (London 1895). — Bluebook, C 4645, C 5143, 
C 5143, C 5331, C 5622, C 6200, C 6201, C 7393, C 7395, C 7780, C 7878 and "Keports". 

— Wagner-Supan, Bevolkerung der Erde, VIII., pag. 197. — London Gazette, 11th June 
1895. — Colonial reports Nr. 186. — Petermann's Mittheilungen 1896, pag. 186. — HertsletE., 
The Map of Africa by Treaty (London 1896), I, pp. 329—332, 434—437, 529-536 ; III. 
pp. 1067, 1068, 1075—1078. 

South African Republic (Transvaal). 

Bluebook, C 2695, C 3114, C 3841, C 3914, C 4214, C 4432, C 4644, C 4695, 
C 4980, C 5331, C 5892, C 6200, C 6217, C 7611, C 8308. — Schets Kaart aantoonende 
de grcnslynen in Zuid Afrika etc. Scale 1:2,85 Mill. (Pretoria 1869). — Wagner- 
Supan, Bev.-.lkerung der Erde, VIII., pag. 190. — Silver S. W., Handbook to the 
Transvaal (London 1877, page 421). — Bluebook for Transvaal Province (Pretoria 1879). — 
Transvaal Govrnment Gazette 1881 seqq. — Nixon J., The complete story of the Transvaal 
from the "Great Trek" to the Convention of London (London 1885). — Theal G. M., 
History of the Boers in South Africa (London 1887). — Jeppe F., Transvaal Book Almanac 
for 1887 (Maritzburg 1887). — Deutsches Kolonialblatt, 15. Juli 1890. — Fortnightly 
Review 1890, page 283. — Blink H., De Zuid-Afrikaansche republiek en hare bewoners 
(Amsterdam 1890). — Petermann's Mittheilungen 1892, pag. 129.— Wagner-Supan, Beviil- 
kerung der Erde, VIII. (Gotha 1892, pag. 188). — Petermann's Mittheilungen 1896, pag. 88. 

— L'Afrique Fran^aise 1896, pag. 361. — King J., Dr. Jameson's Raid. Its causes and 
consequences (London 1896). — Mermeix, Le Transvaal et la Chartered (2 edition, Paris 1897). 

— Hertslet E., The Map of Africa by Treaty (London 1896), II, pp. 704-712, 822—828, 
839—879, 903; III, pp. 1029—1036. 

Portuguese East Africa. 

Parliamentary Papers, 1875, Nr. 1; 1890-1891, Nr. 2 — Bluebook, C6370. — Boletin 
Official 1885 seqq. — Boletin da Sociedade de Geographia de Lisboa 1885 — 1896, (1886, 
pag. 495). — Documcntos apresentados as Cortes na sessao legisl. de 1886 — 1896. (Nc- 
gocios da Africa oriental e central.) — Deutscher Reichsanzeiger, 30. December 1886. — 
Correspondence respecting the Delagoy Bay Railway (London 1889). — Libr. blanc. 1887. 

— Carta da provincia de Mozambique (Ministro de Marinha) Es. 1:3 Mill. (Lisboa 1889). 

— Correspondence respecting Portuguese Claims in South Africa (London 1890). — London 
Gazette, 26th August 1890. — Marcel G., Les Portugais dans I'Afrique australc (Paris 18'.)0). 

— Cazenave L. de, Divisions politiques de la province do Mozambiciue (Recueil. consul. 
LXII, pag. 208). — Caj)ello et Irens, Quelques notes sur rotablissement et Ics travaux 
des Portugais au Manomotapa (Lisboa 1890). — D'Andrade A., Reconhecimento de 
Tcrreno da fronteira do Transvaal (Lisboa 1891). — Carta das po.sscssoes Portuguezas da 
Africa meridional segundo as convcncoos celebradas en 1891, 1:6 Mill. (Lisboa 1891). 

— Murray R. W., South Africa etc. (I. P., London 1891). — Diario, 22 Jun. 1892. 

— Wagner-Supan, Bevulkerung der Erde, VIII. (Gotha 1892, pag. 181). — Peter- 

Count Kinsky: "The Dii>lomati8t'8 Handbook for Africa". 16 


mann's Mitthcilnngcn 1896, pag. 80. — Naronha E de, LonronQo Marquos o as suas 
rcla(,«oes com a Africa do Sul. (Lisboa IfSOG.) — Thcal G. M.. 'riio rortngueso in South 
Africa (London 1896). — Hdlwig Paul, Die Delagoa-Tiai und line Bcdeutung fiir den 
llandol (;ilerlin 1897V — Uertslet E., The Maj) of Africa by Treaty (London 1896), II, pp. 
693 — 703, 70:>— 747. 

^lailagtiscar aii<l Dependencies. 

Ellin. History of Madagascar (London 1838, 2 Vols.). — Hears, The story of Mada- 
gascar (New York 1873). — Grandidicr A., Histoire physique, natureUc et politique do 
Madagascar (Paris 1876 seqq.). — Treaty concluded between France and Madagascar, 8th August 
1868 (London 1883) see also Parliamentary Papers 1883, Nr. 4. — Vassiire P., Histoire de 
jMadagascar (Paris 1884). — Cre»iazy P., Notice bibliographique sur Madagascar (St. Denis 
1884). — Shaw G. H , Madagascar and France (London 1885). — Saillens II., Nos droits 
sur Madgascar etc. (Pai-is 1885). — The Antananarivo Annual and Madagascar Magazine 
IV, (Antananarivo and London 1885 seqq.). — Correspondence respecting treaty of 17th 
December 1885 (London 1886) see also Parliamentary Papers 1886, Nr. 2. — Livro Jaune 
1886. — Guet J., Les origines de I'ile Bourbon ct de la colonisation fran(,'aise a Mada- 
gascar (Paris 1888). — Le Chat-tier H. et Pellerin G., Madagascar depuis sa decouverte 
jusqu'a nos jours (Paris 1888). — Les Colonies francjaises (Paris 1890, Vol. I). — Vignols 
L., La France a Madagascar de 1674 a 1750 (Revue de geographic 1890, pp. 292, 360). 

— Graiididier A., Histoire do la gvographie de Madagascar (2 edition, Paris 1893). — 
Martineaii A., iladagascar en 1894 (Paris 1894). — Piolet J. B., Madagascar et les Hovas 
(Paris 1895). — Brunet L., La France a Madagascar 1815—1895 (Paris 1895). — Colin 
E. et Suan P., Madagascar et sa mission catholique (Paris 1895). — Livre jaune 1896. 

— Renseignements coloniaux 1896, pag. 53. — L'Afrique Fran^aise 1896, pp. 183, 204, 
245. — Hanotaux G., L'affaire de Madagascar (Paris 1896). — Knigth E., Madagascar in 
War Time (London 1896). — Hertslet E., The Map of Africa by Treaty (London 1896), 
n, pp. 571, 572, 788—800. — Le Journal Officiel de Madagascar 1897. 

Mauritius and Dependencies. 

Flemyng, Mauritius or the Isle of France (London 1862). — Bonaparte R., Le premier 
Etablissement des Neerlandais a Maurice (Paris 1890). — Leclercq J., Au pays de Paul et 
Virginie (Paris 1895). — The Mauritius Almanac 1885—1896. — Brauer A. Dr., Die 
Seychellen (Ges. fiir Erdkunde, Berlin, 16. ,Tuni 1896). — The Geographical Journal, 1896, 

Reunion and Dependencies. 

Drasche-Wartimberg, Die Insel Reunion (Wien 1877). — Gue't J., Les origines de 
I'ilc Bourbon (Paris 1887). — Hue, La Reunion et Madagascar^ (Paris 1890). 

The Comoro Islands. 

Grerey, Essai sur les Comores (Pondichery 1870). — Genin'J., Madagascar, les ties 
Comores, Mayotte etc. (Paris 1889). — Les Colonies fran^aises (Paris 1890, Vol. I). — 
Armieres, Dr., Les lies Comores (Paris 1890). 


List of Orders in Council, 1866—1893. — New, Life, wanderings and labours in 
Eastern Africa (London 1873). — Correspondences relating to Zanzibar (London 1886 seqq.). 

— Deutscher Reichsanzeiger, 30. December 1886. — Schmidt K. W., Sansibar (Leipzig 
1888). — Re\-ue de geographic 1890, pag. 297. — London Gazette, 4th November 1890, 


nth February 1892, 'ilst July 1893. — Baumaun 0., Die Insel Zanzibar (Leipzig 1897). 
— Idem, Die Inisel Pemba (Leipzig 1897). — Gazette for Zanzibar and East Africa, 
20th January 1897. — Mc Dennoft, British East Africa. (London 1893), pp. 264, 268 
seqq. — Parliamentary Papers 1894, Nr. 1. — Bluebook C 5578, C 5603. — Hertslet E. 
The Map of Africa by Treaty (London 1896), II, pp. 547, 570, 605 -607, 615-622, 750—770, 
925—966, 995 ; III, 992—994. 

German East Africa. 

Die Lage in Afrika unmittelbar vor und nach dem deutsch-englischen Vertrage vom 
politischen Standpunkte aus betrachtet (Dresden 1870). — National-Zeitung 1884, pag. 3012.— 
Denlischrift liber die deutschen Schutzgebiete 1884—1886 (II, pag. 44), und vom 2. December 
1885 (III. pag. 201). — Arrangement between Great Britain and Germany relative to their 
respective Spheres in Africa (Loudon 1885). — WeiCbiicher 1885 ff., besonders Nr. 56, VIII, 
XI, X, 1890 — 1891. — Deutschcr Reichsanzeiger (1885—1896), besonders 3. Milrz 1885; 
30. November 1886; 21. Juli 1887; 22. October 1889; 10. Juli 1890. — Parliamentary Papers 
1886, Nr. 1 ; 1887, Nr. 3; 1890, Nr. 2. — Petermann's Mittheiluugen 1887, pp. 58 und 123. — 
Kolonialpolitische Correspondenz vom 26. Februar 1887. — Mittheiluugen aus den deutschen 
Schutzgebieten 1887 secpi- — Deutsche Kolonialzeitung von 1888 ab. — Meinecke, Kolo- 
niales Jahrbuch 1888, pag. 237. — Wagner, Deutsch-Ostafrika (Berlin 1888). — Idem, Die 
deutsch-ostafrikanische Kolonie in ihrer Entstehungsgeschichte etc. (Berlin 1889). — Deutsches 
Kolonialblatt 1889 ff., besonders 15. Juli 1890. — Correspondence respective Anglo-German 
Agreement relating to Africa and Heligoland (London 1890). — Forster B., Deutsch- 
Ostafrika (Leipzig 1890). — Petermann's Mittheilungen 1890, pag. 194. — Vohsen E., Zum 
deutsch-englischen Vertrag (Berlin 1890). — Schroeder-Poggeloiv, Unsere Afrika-Politik in 
den letzten zwei Jahren (Berlin 1890). — Wagner- Supan, Bevolkerung der Erde, VIII. 
(Gotha 1892, pag. 179). — Reichard P., Deutsch-Ostafrika (Leipzig 1892). — Schmidt R., 
Geschichte des Araber-Aufstandes in Ostafrika (Frankfurt a. O. 1892). — Mc Dermott P. L., 
British East Africa (London 1893), Appendices. — Peters K., Das deutsch-ostafrikanische 
Schutzgebiet (Miinchen und Leipzig 1895). — Stiihlmann F., Mit Emin Pascha etc. (Berlin 
1897). _ Hertslet E., The Map of Africa by Treaty (London 1896), I, pp. 303—316; II, 
pp. 623-627, 630—657, 754-770; III, pp. 985, 1024. 

British East AMca. 

Diplomatic and consular reports on trade and tinance 1894. — Wilson C. T. and 
Felhin R. W., Uganda and the Egyptian Soudan (London 1882, 2 Vols.). — Doutscher 
Kcichsanzeiger, 30. December 1886. — London Gazette, 7th September 1888, 4th and 25th 
November 1890, 22nd November 1890, 19th June 1894, 15th June 1895 and 1st September 
1896. — The story of the Uganda Mission (London 1889). — Bluebook, C 6555, C 7225, 
Parliamentary Papers Africa Nr. 4(1892), Nr. 25(1894). — Deutsches Kolonialblatt, 15. Juli 
1890. — S^oc/cS., The story of Uganda and the Victoria Nyanza Mission (London 1892). — 
British East Africa and Uganda (London 1892). — L'Ouganda et les agissements de la 
compagnie anglaise "East Africa" (I'aris 1892). — Bentley E., Handbook to the Uganda 
Question etc. (London 1892). — Mc Dermott P. L., British East Africa or Ibea. A history 
of the formation and work of the Imperial British East Africa Company (London 1893), 
pp. 263, 376. — Quaterly Review 1893 (Uganda). — Lugard F. D., The Kiso of our 
East African Impire (London 1893 2 Vols.). — Handbook of British East Africa, prepared in 
Intelligence Division, AVar Oflicc (I^ondon 1893). — L'Ouganda (Paris 1893.) — Ashe R., 
Chronicles of Uganda (London 1894). — CoUille, Henry, Sir, The Land of the Nile Springs 
being chiefly an account of how wo fought Kabarega. (Now York 1895). — L'Africiuo 
Fran<;.aiso 1896, pag. 256. — Hertslet E., The Map of Africa by Treaty (London 1896), 
I, pp! 107-172; II, pp. 754—770; 111, pp. 995-997, 1016, 1017, 1069-1071. 



British Soinalilaiid and Sokoti'a. 

Transactions 15onibay Geographical Society liSiG, i>a<;e 111 ; 1^50, ir.\<^o \2d. — L'obiiison, 
Sokotra (London 1878). — licroil G., Yoyag-o an Cap dos Aromatos (Paris 1880). — Idem, 
La valli'c du Daror (Paris 1882). — ratilUschke Ph., GoogTaphischo Erforschung dor Adal- 
LiUider etc. (Leipzig 1884:'. — I'roccoding-s of the E. G. S. London, 1885, October. — 
Hunter F., llarar (London 1884). — Petermann's Mitthcilungen 1887, pag. 32. — Colonial 
Ofticc list, 1801, page 310. — Parliamentary Papers 1894, Nr. 1, 17. — Keport on tlio 
reconnaissance of the Northern Somaliland (1801). — Sicai/ne H. G. C, 17 trii)S in Sonialihind 
(London 1895). — Hcrtsht E., The Map of Africa by Treaty (London 1890), II, pp. 069, 
070, 829, 830—835; III, pp. 976—980. 

Froiieli Possessions of the diulf of Aden. 

Journal Ofliciel, 23 Dccenibro 1880. — Bicoijrc D. de, Oboe (Paris 1883). — 
Documents parlamentaires, Novembre 1885, pag. 1022. — Journal Ofiiciel, 4 Mars 1886. 

— Faurof, Oboe (Paris 1886). — Les Colonies franyaises (Paris 1890, Vols. VI, pp. 241—288). 

— Salma L. de, Obock (Paris 1893). — Parliamentary Papers 1894, Nr. 1. — L'Afrique 
Franvaise, 1890, pag. 188. — L K. United Service I, pag. 41 (1897), 623-630: Obock 
etc. — Vanderheym, Q\m\ mois avoc le Negous Menelic (Paris 1896). — Hertslet E., The 
Map of Africa by Treaty (London 1896), 1, pp. 269-275; III, ]ip. 97G— 980. 

Italian Possessions in North East AMea. 

Guillain M., Documents sur Thistoire, la g\'ographie et le commerce de I'Afrique orien- 
tale (Paris 1856, 3- Vols.). — Provedimenti per la costituzione e I'ordinamento di una colonia 
italiaua in Assab (Minist. d. a. tt". est. 1882, 1886). — Possess! e protettorati in Africa 
(.\nnuario statistic italiano), 1885 sccjq. — Atti parlamentari XVI., 1886. — Documenti diplo- 
matici presentati al parlamento italiano (Libri verdi, XIV, XV, XVII, XVIII), 24. Apriie, 
2. Maggio e 9. Novembre 1888, 17. Dicembre 1889, 4. Marzo 1890, 17. Marzo 1891 
16. Apriie 1891, 25. Luglio 1895 e 27. Apriie 1896. — Mc Dermoit, P. L, British East Africa 
(London 1893), Appendices. — Africa Italiana (Journal). — Austria, 1889, pag. 506. — 
Kelazione annuale suUa Colonia Eritrea. — Parliamentary Papers 1894, Nr. 17. — Bruch- 
hansen v., Die Italiener in Afrika (Beiheft zum Militarischen Wochenblatt 1895, pag. 317). 

— L'Afrique Franvaise, 1896, pag. 397. — Eritrea: La colonia italiana in Africa e Francesco 
Crispi, il parlamento ed il paese (Roma 1896). — Hertslet E., The Map ot Africa by Treaty 
(London 1896), II, pji. 605—670, 772-776, 888, 889, 949—960; III, pp. 1072-1074. 


Bruce J., Travels etc. (Edinburg 1790, 5 Vols.). — Salt H., Account etc. (London 
1814). — Rochet d'Hericourt C. E. H., Voyage sur la cote orientale do la Mcr Kouge (Paris 
1841). — Harris W. C, The highlands of Aethiopia (London 1844, 3 Vols.). — Pocket d'Heri- 
court C. E. H., Voyage sur la coto orientale de la Mer Kouge (Paris 1848\ — Bulletin 
de la Societe Khediviale de Gcographie 1876, pag. 351. — Pohl/s G., Meine Mission etc. 
(Leipzig 1883). — Paulitschke Ph., Geographische Erforschung der Adal-Lilnder etc. (Leipzig 
1884). — Caix de Saint-Aymour de, La France en Ethiopie etc. (Paris 1886). — Paulit- 
schke Ph., Harar (Leipzig 1888). — Mantegazza P., Da Massaua a Saati (Milano 1888). 

— Documenti diplomatici presentati al parlamento Italiano (Libri verdi), 1890, pp. 127, 
128, 270, 273, 376, 434; 2. ser. pag. 19; 1891, pag. 101. — Costi, Storia d'Etiopia (Milano 
1890). — Borelli J., Ethiopie mi'ridionale (Paris 1890). — Sapeto G., Etiopia (Roma 1890). 

— BoUetino della Societa Africana dTtalia (Sez. Napolet.) 1890, pag. 136. — Constantin 
de, L' Archimandrite Pa'i'si et I'Ataman AchinofF. line expedition religieuse en Abyssinie 
(Paris 1891). — Nerazzini, La conquista mussulmana dell' Etiopia nel secolo XVI. (Roma 


1JJ91). — Fumagalli G., Bibliografiu ctiopica (Milano 1893). — Paronelli F., Amba Alagi 
c Makale (Como 189C>)- — BobeccJd-Bricchetti L., Nell' Harrar (Milano 1896). — Hertslet L\, 
The Map of Africa by Treaty (London 1896), I, pp. 1—18. — Vigneras S., Una mission 
fran(;aise en Abyssinie (Paris 1897). — D'Abbadie A. el PauUtschke Ph., Foutoukh cl- 
Habacha (Paris 1898). 


Berlin Act of 26th February 1885. — Bambaud, La Erance coloniale (Paris 1886). 
— Convention between the govrnments of Great Britain, Germany, Austria-Hungary, 
France, Italy, Kussia and Turkey relative to the finance of Egypt, signed at London, 
18th March 1885 (London 1885). — Correspondence respecting the proposed international 
convention for securing the free navigation of the Suez Canal (London 1888). — Petermann's 
Mittheilungen, 1888, pp. 160 ff. — Actes de la conference de Bruxelles 1889—1890 et la 
traite des esclaves en Afrique. (Bruxelles 1890, 3 Vols.). — Scarsez de LocqueneuiUe, 
L'esclavage ses promoteurs et ses adversaires. Notes et documents etc. (Liege 1890). — 
Vhilibert et Rolland G., La France en Afrique et le Transsaharien (Paris 1890). — Corpo 
di stato maggiore Italiano: Possedimenti e protettorati Europei in Africa 1890 (Roma 1890), 
2. Edizione. — Rolland G., Le Transsaharien un an apr^s (Paris 1891). — Binger, Cap., 
Esclavage, islamisme et christianisme (Paris 1891). — Sabatier C, Touat, Sahara et Soudan 
(Paris 1891). — Fock A., Algerie, Sahara, Tchad etc. (Paris 1891). — Alis H., La conciuete 
du Tchad (Paris 1891). — Silca White A., On the comparative value of African Lands 
(Scott. Geographical Magazine, 1891, page 191). — Idem, The development of Africa (London 
1890). — Rmvson R. W., The territorial partition of the coast of Africa (Proceedings R G. S. 
London, 1884, pp. 615 — 632). — The Imperial Institute yearbook (London 1892 seqq.). — 
Wagner-Supan, Die Bevolkeruug der Erde, VIII. Supplement zu Petermann's Mittheilungen 
Nr. 101 (Gotha 1892, pp. 139—202). — Scott Keltic J., The partition of Africa (London 
1893). — Documents relatifs a la repression de la traite des esclaves publics en execution 
des articles LXXXI et suivant de I'acte general de Bruxelles 1892 (Bruxelles 1893). — 
Sebillot A., Le Transafricain (Paris 1893). — Guenin E., Histoire de la colonisation 
franc.aise, I. (Paris 1896). — Zimmermann Alfred, Die europaischen Kolonien. I. Band. 
Die Kolonialpolitik Portugals und Spaniens in ihrer Entwickelung von den Anfiingen bis 
zur Gegenwart (Berlin 1896). — Fitzner Rudolf Deutsches Kolonialhandbuch. (Berlin 
1896). — Chaudordu Cte. de. Considerations sur la politique exterieure et coloniale do la 
France (Paris 1897). — SejJtans, Les expeditions anglaises en Afrique (Paris 1897). — Docu- 
ments officiels. I. et II. Publication de I'Institut colonial international (Bruxelles. 2 serie. 
Paris 1896 et 1897). — Meinecke G., Koloniales Jahrbuch. Beitrage und Mittheilungen aus 
dcm Gebiet der Kolonialwissenschaft und Kolonialpolitik. 9. Jahrgang 1896 (Berlin 1897). — 
Das WeiCbuch. Theil XVII. (Berlin 1897). — Lucas C. P., A historical Geography of the 
British Colonies. Vols. 4: South and East Africa. Part 1: Historical, with maps; Part 2: 
Geographical, with maps. (London 1897.) — Eouard de Card E., Les traites de protcctorat 
conclus par la France en Afrique 1870—1895. (Paris 1897). — Brose Max, Die deutschc 
Kolonialliteratur von 1884—1895 (Berlin 1897, Deutsche Kolonial-GeseUschaft.) — Annuaire dc 
I'anni'e coloniale de 1897 (Paris). — Institut colonial international: Les fonctionnaires 
coloniaux (Paris 1897). — Revue diplomatique et coloniale (Paris 1897). — De Clecq, 
Collection of French Treaties. — Chalmers' Treaties. — Martens Recueil etc. — Janer 
D. Flor., Tratatos de Espana. — Ilcrtslet's Treaties. — Scott Keltie's, Statesman's Yearbook. — 
Uertslet Ed. Sir, The Mai) of Africa by Treaty. 2nd edition 3 Vols. (London 1896.) 


Carte de I'Algrrio (Service gcographiciuc de TArmt'o) 1 : 50.000 (Paris 1884 seqq.). 
— Perrier, Carte do la Timisic, 1 : 200.000 (Paris 1884—1886). — Monteil-Binger, Carlo 
des Etablisscmcnts Franrais du S.'n.'gal (Paris 1886). — Gaidtier, Carte de TAlgc'rie et dc 


la Tiinisio (Tiivis 1887). — .Vov^a'Av/, Orig-inal Map of South Africa, 1 : "2,500.000 (-Ith Eilition, 
Berlin 188'.»)- — -Df Lattiioy dc Jiissi/ IL, C'arto do TAfriiiuc, 1 : '2,000.000 (Paris 188'.) 
seqq.). — Jttta, Map of South Africa, 1 : 2,500.000 (London 1891). — Bavenstein E. G., 
A Map of Eastern Etiuatorial Africa, 1 : 1,000.000 (London 1882). — Hahenicht H., Special- 
karto von Afrika, 1 : 4,000.000 (:?. Edition, Gotha 1892). • — Kie])Crt E., Specialkarte von 
Deutsch-Siidwestafrika, 1 : 3,000.000 (Berlin 1893). — Laiighaiis P., Deutschcr Kolonial-Atlas 
(Gotha 18941 — Chuuraml de E., Carta dimcstrativa dolla Etiopia, 1 : 1,000.000 (Konui 
1S94). — Dehes E., Nouvelle carto de TEgypto ct scs di'pendancos, 1 : 3,000.000 (Berlin 
1895). — Bingcr, Carto du Haut IS'igcr au golfe do Guinec par le i)ays dc Kong et lo 
Mossl, 1 : 1,000.000 (Paris 1895). — Langhans P., Sudwestafrikanisches Schutzgebiet, 
1 : 2,000.000 (Gotha 1S9G). — Wauters A. J., Carto de I'Etat Indc'pondant du Congo, 
Supplement Mouvement Geograi)hi(jue, 1 : 2,000.000 (Bruxelles 1896). — Kiepert P., Karte 
von Deutsch-Ostafrika, 1 : 300.000 (Berlui 1895 ft".). — Langliuna Paul, Schutzgebietc 
Kamerun und Togo in 4 Bliittern mit 16 Nebeukarten, 1 : 2,000.000. — Idem, Ostafrikanisches 
Schutzgebiet, 1 : 2,000.000 (Gotha 1897). — Hansen, Congo fram/ais, publii'c par le service 
gi'ographique des colonies 1 : 1,500.000 (Paris 1895). — Wandkarte von Deutsch-Ostafrika. 
Kedigiert von Dr. Richard Kiepert. 6 Blatter. 1 : 1,000.000 (Berlin). — Flotte de 
Poquecairc R. de, Carte du Maroc k rechello du 1,000.000« avec notice et index biblio- 
graphique (Paris 1897). — Vuillot, P., Soudan fran(;ais ct cute occidentale d'Afri(jue, 
1 : 4,000.000 (Paris 1897). — Berghaus', Stielei^'s, Kiepert's, Vidal de la Blache's, W. und 
A. K. Johnston's Atlas. 

GeooTaphical Regi ster. 

(The Figures refer to the nnniber of the Page.) 


Abaj 97. 

Abasuen 89, 91. 

Abba Garima 9G. 

'Abd el-Kury 90. 

Abeokiitta 31, 35. 

Abyssinia 93, 97. 

Abome (Abomey) .35. 37. 

Abu Klea 7. 

Accra 30 f. 

Adamawa (Adamaua) 40, 43. 

Adda 30. 

Addifuha 91. 

Addis ababa 100. 

Addo 35. 

Adel 98. 

Adeli 34. 

Aden 90. 

Adrar 19. 

Adua 96. 

Aegenni 37. 

'Afar 91, 92. 

Afrikijja 10. 

Agaishe 36. 

Agordat 7. 

Ague 35 f. 

Ain Salah 15. 

Ajada 35. 

Ajuda 35, 36. 

Akim 30. 

Akwama 30. 

Albert-Edward Lake 87. 

Albert-Nyanza 50, 87. 

Albreda 29. 

Aldabra-Islands 82. 

Alexandria 2. 

Alfred County 70. 

Algiers 12, 42. 

Alhucemas 18. 

Alina 17, 47. 
Allada 35, 3G. 
Ama Kossa 61. 
Amaoful 31. 
Amatongo 72. 
Ambabo 91. 
Ambas Bay 45. 
Amboella 55. 
Amboland 50. 
Ambriz 52, 54. 
Amhura 97, 98. 
Amirantes 80. 
Anamaboe 30. 
Aneho 34. 

Angola 52, 54, 55, 65. 
Ankori 87. 
Annobon 45. 
Antananarivo 79. 
Antotto 99. 
Appollonia 30. 
Ardra 36. 
Arguin 18, 21. 
Aribinda 24. 
Aroangva 65, 68. 
Aroossi 97. 
Arussi-Galla 94. 
Asaba 41. 
Ashanti 31. 
Ascension 56. 
Asdscher 7. 
Asgar 7. 
Asmara 96. 
Assab 93, 94, 95. 
Assinie 21, 26, 27. 
Assinie River 25. 
Assumption 80, 82. 
Astove 82. 
Atbara 93. 
Audsbila 8. 
Aussa 94, 95. 
Avon Lagoon 34. 

Axim 30. 

Azores 20. 


Bachunu 24. 

Badagry 31. 

Bating 23. 

Bagliirmi 8, 41. 

Bahia del Oeste 18. 

Bahr el-arab 6. 

Bahr el-azraq 87. 

Bahr el-ghasfil 6, 53. 

Bamaliti 61. 

Bambara 24. 

Bambuk 24. 

Bangweolo Lake 50, 69. 

Bardera 94. 

Barka 8, 93. 

Barolong 61. 

Barotse 54, 55, 68. 

Barrana (Barrawa) 21, 39. 

Barua (Baruwa) 21, 39. 

Bas de cote 25. 

Bassam 24. 

Bassas de India 79. 

Basutoland 61, 62, 70. 

Batanga 44. 

Batete 22. 

Bathurst 29. 

B. C. A. 67. 

Bechuanaland Protectorate 

60, 61, 63. 
Becquah 31. 
Begemeder 97. 
Beira 77. 

Beled cl-dsherid 10. 
Beled es-Sudan 5. 
Beledugu 26. 
Benadir 93, 96. 
Bender Ziada 89, 94. 
Benghasi 8. 


Bengnclla ai. 5.'). 

Beui Amor iU. "Jo. 

Beni Mzab 11. 

Renin ii.'i. 37. 

Bonno iV.), -i:?. 

Berber 4. 

Berbera SKI 

Betsileos 78. 

Betsiuiisarakas 78. 

Biafara 43. 

BiokabOba (Bia KabOiba) 
89, ni, 94. 

Bisniarckburg 34. 

Bissagos 28. 

Bh'mco, Cape 18. 

Blantyre 69. 

Bloemfontein 73. 

Bodelu 8. 

Bogos territories 6. 

Bogos 99. 

Bojador Cape 18. 

BolAma 28. 

Boma 54. 

Bon, Cape 10. 

Bondii 24. 

Boratsile 6L 

Borgu 32, 40. 

Borku 8. 

Bornu 9, 39, 41. 

Brass River 37. 

Brava 83, 84, 96. 

Britisli Bechuanaland 59. 

British Central Africa 65. 

British Central Africa Pro- 
tectorate 69. 

British East Africa 86. 

British Kaffraria 62. 

British Somaliland 89. 

British South Africa Com- 
pany 65. 

Brothers Islands 90. 

Bulam 28. 

Balawayo 67. 

Bumtu 21. 

Buseima 8. 

Bossang 40. 

Cabinda 47, 54. 
Cacheo 26, 27. 
Cairo 2, 5. 

Calabar 43, 41. 

Cama 52. 

Cameroon 37, 43. 

Campo River 43, 45. 

Canary Islands 19, 20. 

Capo Blanco 18. 

Cape Coast Castle 30. 

Cape Colony 59, 70. 

Capo Corrientes 82. 

Cape Delgado 76. 

Capo Frio 59. 

Cape Guardafui 94. 

Cape Mount 29. 

Cape Palmas 25, 32. 

Cape of Good Hope 59. 

Cape Verde Islands 20. 

Capetown 61, 63. 

Carabane 26. 

Cargados 80. 

Casamanza 25. 

Cassini 27. 

Catak 27. 

Cayor 22 f. 

Cerf 82. 

Cette 52. 

Ceuta 17, 18. 

Chafarimas Islands 1(S. 

Chagos Islands 80. 

Chinde 69. 

Chiuta Lake 67. 

Chiwanga 68. 

Chor Gash 93. 

Cidade de Praya 20. 

Combia 27. 

Combo 29. 

Comores 81. 

Compony 26, 27. 

Conakry 27. 

Congo 47, 51, 54. 

Congo fran^ais 46. 

Congo State 49. 

Constantino 12. 

Coomassi 31. 

Corisco 45. 

Cosmoledo 80, 82. 

Cute fran^aise des Sonialis 91 . 

Crepi 30. 

Croboe 30. 

Crocodile River 74. 

Cross River 38. 

Cubango 54, 57. 

Cuneno 54, 57. 

Cyrenaika 8. 


Dabi'i 26. 

Dakhel 1. 

Dagoinba 34. 

Dahlak-Archipelago 94. 

Dahomey 27, 33, 35. 

Dakar 21. 

Damaraland 57, 58. 

Danierghu 13. 

Damietta 2. 

Danfdvil 91, 94, 95. 

Dar Banda 6. 

Dar es-salam 86. 

Dfir Fertit 6, 47. 

Dfir Fflr 1, 3, 9, 42, 47, 87. 

Davali 89, 91. 

Debbeh 1. 

Delta 2. 

Denkera 30. 

Desertas 20. 

Diankolo River 21. 

Diego Garcia 80. 

Diego Suarez 79. 

Dilolo-Lake 50. 

Dixcove 30. 

Djimma 97, 98. 

Djogue 26. 

Dogali 95, 99. 

Dolbohanta 90. 

Dongola 1, 5. 

Draa 15. 

Dshalo 8. 

Dsharabub 1, 8. 

Dshezirah 6. 

Dshezira Soba 91. 

Dshibuti 91. 

Dshildessa 89, 91. 

Dsholi 16. 

Dshub-(Juba-)River 83, 94. 

Dsitambo's Village 69. 

Dullul 91. 

Dumejra 91. 


Eagle Islands 80. 

East Africa Protectorate 86. 

East-Griqualand 60. 

Ederi 7. 

Egba 32. 

Egypt 1. 

Ejssa-Somali 90. 

El Arish 2. 


El Biban 7, 10. 

El Gada 15. 

El Gharb 14. 

El Golea 12. 

El Habasha 97. 

El Obeid 4, 6. 

El Sa'id 2. 

El Teb 4, 6, 7. 

Elephant Islands 29. 

Elmina ^-^0 

Eloby 45. 

Emin Pasha's Province 50. 

Ennedi 8. 
Ennerea 98. 
Erer 97. 
Erg 7. 

Eritrea 93. 96. 
Essaman 31. 
Eshowe 72. 

Estado d'Africa Oriental 78. 
Etembue 43. 
Ethiope Rapids 43. 
Ethiopia 97. 
Europa 79. 


Faleme 21. 

B^alkat River 93. 

Fanti 31. 

Farafrah 1. 

Farquhar 82 

Fas (Fes) 15, 17. 

Fellatah 40. 

Fernando P6 45, 46 

Fezzan 7, 9. 

Fetishtown 44 

Figig 1.5. 

Forcados 37. 

Fort Rosebery 69. 

Foulepointe 78, 

Frao River 39, 43. 

Freetown 30. 

French Congo 46. 

French Guinea 25. 

French Soudan 21, 23. 

Friedrichsbnrg (Gross-) 34. 

Fuladugu 24. 

Fulbe (Fellatah), Dominion 

of .39. 
Funchal 20. 
Futa Dshallon 22, 24. 
Futa Toro 24. 


Gaboon 45, 47. 

Gadaburssi 89, 94. 

Galega 82. 

Galla 87, 94, 97. 

Gambia 21,29. 

Gambia River 29. 

Gana 37. 

Gando 34, 39, 40. 

Gangella 54, 55. 

Gangomme 22. 

Garayos 82. 

Gasaland 76. 

Geba 27. 

Georgetown 29, 56. 

German East Africa 84. 

German South West Africa 

Ghadames 7, 10, 12. 

Ghat 7, 9. 

Glehue 35. 

Glorioso-Islands 78. 

Godsham 97. 

Gold Coast Colony 30. 

Gold Coast 21, 25. 

Goorage 97. 

Goorma (Gurma) 24, 30, 34. 

Goosen 64. 

Goree 21. 

Gough's Island 56. 

Grand Bassa 33. 

Grand Bassam 25. 

Grand Lahou 25. 

Grand Popo 35, 36. 

Great-Comoro 81. 

Great Fish River 61. 

Great-Windhoek 59. 

Griqualand 60. 

Gross Friedrichsburg 34. 

Gubat 7. 

Gubet Kharaib 91. 

Gudru 97. 

Guimbering 26. 

Guinea Portuguese 21. 

Guinee Frangaise 25. 

Gura 98. 

Gurara 13. 

Gurma 24, 30, 34. 

Guro 13. 


Habab 94, 95. 
Habr Audi 90. 

Count KiDHky: "The Diplomatist's Handl)ook for Africa". 

Habr Gerhadji 90. 
Habr Toldshalej 90. 
Hadu 94. 
Handub 7. 
Harar 3, 91, 97. 
Haut Ubangi 42. 
Ha wash 91. 
Hawija 94. 
Hickorytown 44. 
Hombonu 36. 
Hovas 78. 
Humbe 54, 58. 

Ibadan 32. 

I. B. E. A. 86. 

Ibo 76. 

Ida 37. 

Ifni 18. 

Ilhas do Cabo Verde 20. 

Imperial British East Africa 

Inaccessible 56. 
Ingogo 74. 
Inhambane 76. 
Insalah (Ain Salah) 13, 15. 
Iramba 85. 
Isandula 62. 
Isa-Somal (Siehe Ejssa.) 
Iskobio 31, 
Isle de Bourbon 80 
Isle de France 86. 
Ismailia 2. 

Isola do principe 46. 
Itala 96. 
Itjopja 97. 
Ivory Coast 21, 25. 

Jackville 25. 
Jamestown 57. 
Jatenga 24. 
Jebu (Yebu) 32. 
Johanna (Comorcs) 81. 
Johannesburg 75. 
Jola (Yola) 38, 43. 
Jorubaland (Yorubai 35. 
Juan de Nova 79. 
Juba Factory 49, 54, 96. 
Juba-(Dshub-)River 83. 
Juby Cape 14, 15, 16. 



Kaarta 24. 
Kaba 26 

KabUai 26. 

Kabouipo 68. 

Kaffa 97. 

Kaha 98. 

Kana 36, 37. 

Kanem 8, 41. 

Kaokoland 58. 

Karagwe 85. 

Karonga 84. 

Kasar Kas 1, 93. 

Kasbgil 4, 6. 

Kasongo 51. 

Kassai 51, 52, 54. 

Kassala 7, 93, 95. 

Katanga 50, 51. 

Katima-Falls 58, 68. 

Kawar 8. 

Kawende 85. 

Kawirondo 84, 87. 

Kayes 21, 25. 

Kazembe's Dominion 68. 

Kebabo 8. 

Kelraina 37. 

Kemi 1. 

Kenatsa 15. 

Keren 95, 96. 

Kerguelen 81. 

Khartoum 4, 7. 

Khatete 22. 

Kibwezi 89. 

Kilima Ndsharo 84. 

Kilwa Lake 67. 

Kionga Bay 76. 87. 

Kipini 83. 

Kismayu 83. 

Klein-Povo (Popo) 34. 

Koba 27. 

Kobe 7. 

Koki 87. 

Konde 85. 

Kong 24, 26. 

Kordofan 1, 4, 6, 9, 87. 

Kosi Bay 76. 

Kosseir 2. 

Kotonu 36, 37. 

Kribi 44. 

Krikor 30. 

Kuango 51. 

Kufra 8. 

Kuilii 46, 47, 51. 
Kuka (Kukaua) 9, 39, 41. 
Kumassi (Coomassi) 31. 
Kuria Muria 90. 


La Calle 10. 

Lado 6, 50. 

Laghuat 14. 

Lagos 31, 32, 37. 

Laing's Neck 74. 

Lame 43. 

Larau 83. 

LaurenQo Marquez 76, 77. 

Lavadu 89 

Lekke 31. 

Les Freres 91. 

Liberia 23, 24, 32 f. 

Libreville 48. 

Licona 52. 

Likuala 47. 

Limpopo 73. 

Little Adra 36. 

Little Povo (Popo) 34. 

Loanda 54, 55. 

Loango 48, 54. 

Loangwa 65, 68. 

Loge 52. 

Logone 43. 

Lokodja 41. 

Lolodorf 44. 

Lome 33, 35. 

Los Islands 25. 

Lovadu 91. 

Luapula 50, 69. 

Liideritzland 58. 

Lunda 53, 55. 

Lunti 66. 


Mac Carthy-Island 29. 
Madagascar 78. 
Madeira 20. 
Mafeking 61. 
Mafia 84, 85. 
Magdala 98. 
Maghrib el-aqsa 14. 
Mahdi, Dominion of 5. 
Mahdijja 5. 
Mahe 80. 
Mahis 35. 

Majo Kcbu 43 

Majiiba 74. 

Maklutji 66. 

Manda 83, 88. 

Mandinka 24, 32. 

Manica-Plateau 66, 67, 77. 

Manjanga 47. 

Mao 41. 

Maputa River 71. 

Maqdishu 83, 84. 

Marar 94. 

Marea 94, 95. 

Mareb 93. 

Marocco 97. 

Maryland 33. 

Mashonaland 66, 75. 

Maseru 70. 

Massabi 47, 54. 

Massai 87. 

Massenja 42. 

Massina 24. 

Massowah 94, 95. 

Matabeleland 63, 66, 75. 

Matam 21. 

Mauritius 80. 

Mayo Kebbi 42, 44. 

Mayotta 81. 

Mazoe River 65. 

Mbomu 47. 

M'buzimi 85. 

Melilla 18. 

Melindi 88. 

Mellacoree 26. 

Mendif 44. 

Mengo 89. 

Merlikesh 15. 

Meravk^i 1, 5. 

Merihan 94. 

Merka 83, 84, 96. 

Meru Lake 50, 69. 

Mesurado 33. 

Mfumbiro 84. 

Midshurtin 94, 96. 

Milmil 89. 

Misahohe 34. 

Misr 1. 

Misr-el-bahri 2. 

Mkusi 72. 

Mogador 16, 18. 

Mohilla 81. 

Molopo 60, 63. 

Mombasa 82, 87, 89. 

Monrovia 33. 


Morocco 14. 

Mosilekatze 62. 

Mossamedes 54, 55. 

Mossi (Musbi) 24, 30. 

Mozambique 56, 76. 

M'Pall 22. 

Mpaslii 54, 58 

Mpororo 87. 

Mrima 83. 

M'Sinje 67. 

Muata Jam wo (Yam wo) 55. 

Mulfija River 14, 15. 

Muni 45. 

Murzuq 9 

Musarda 33. 

Musha Islands 91, 92. 

Mushi (Mossi) 24, 30. 


Namaland 57. 

Namaqualand 50. 

Naronga 68. 

Natal 62, 70 

Ndara bi, 58. 

N'Diandor 22. 

Ndoruma's Capital 47. 

New-Amsterdam 81. 

New Republic (Zululand) 74 

Ngala 43. 

Ngolgol 22. 

Nguru 83. 

Niam-Niam 47, 87. 

Niari 46. 

Niger Coast Protectorate 37 

Niger-River 13, 38. 

Niger Territories 38 

Nightingale Islands 56. 

Nile 50. 

Nokki 51. 

Nosob 60. 

Nossi-Be 78, 79 

Nubia 1, 6. 

Nun Cape 15. 

Nun, Mouth of 37. 

Nuilez River 25. 

Nyassa 67, 68, 76. 

Nyassaland 66, 69. 


■Obbia 94, 96. 
Obock 91, 92. 
Ogaden 94. 

Ogbomotsho (Obomotsho) 32, 

Ogowe 46, 47, 48, 52. 
Oil Islands 80. 
Oil river 37. 
Okavango 58, 63. 
Omderman (Omdurman) 7,9. 
Oran 12. 
Orango 28. 

Orange-Republic 60, 70, 72 
Orange River 57, 65, 70, 71. 
Oratsghi 37. 
Ordashu 31. 
Ossimi 23. 
Ozi 83, 88. 

Palachwe 64. 
Pangani 88. 
Pankoy 22. 
Patta 83, 88. 
Pemba 82, 86, 88. 
Penon de Velez 18. 
Pietermaritzburg 71. 
Pondoland 60, 63, 70. 
Ponta Delgada 20. 

Port Alice 89. 
Port Louis 80. 

Port Sa'id 2. 

Porto Novo 35, 36, 37. 
Porto Santo 20. 

Porto Seguro 36. 

Portuguese East Africa 77. 

Portuguese Guinea 27. 

Portuguese Lower Guinea 

Possession Island 57. 

Povo grande 49. 

Praslin 80. 

Presidios 17. 

Pretoria 74, 75. 

Princes Island 46. 

Providence 82. 

Punta Barra 29. 


Qasr es-Sa'id 11. 
Quiliraane 76. 
Quitta 30. 


Rahanwin 94. 
Rabat 93. 

Raheita 91, 95. 

Ramaquaban 66. 

Ras 'All 91, 92. 

Ras Dshibuti 91, 92, 93. 

Ras Dumejra 91, 92. 

Ras el-Kunais 8. 

Ras Kasar 93. 

Ras Tadjer. 

Reunion 81. 

Rhodesia 65, 77. 

Rif 15. 

Rio Cassini 27. 

Rio del Rey 38, 43. 

Rio d'oro 13, 15, 17. 

Rio Nuiiez 26. 

Rivieres du Sud 21, 23, 25, 

Robert's-Port 32. 
Rode Valley 60. 
Rodriguez 80. 
Rosebery 69. 
Rosetta 2. 
Roux Cape 10. 
Rovuma River 67, 76, 83. 
Royal Niger Company 38. 
Ruanda 85, 87. 
Rudolf Lake 97. 
Rufisque 21. 
Ruo 68. 

Saadani 85. 
Sabi 66. 
Sagallo 91, 99. 
Sahara 10, 12. 
Sakalavas 78. 
Sakota 97. 
Salaga 34. 
Saldanha Bay 61. 
Saleh 16. 
Salisbury 67, 77. 
Salum 21. 

Samory's Dominion 22. 
Sanga River 42, 44, 47. 
San Giacomo 29. 
San Juan 45. 
San Pietro River 26. 
Sansane-Mangu 37. 
Sansandig 21. 
Santa Clara Cape 46. 
Santa Cruz do Mar Pequena 

Santa Cruz de Tenerife 19. 


Santa Lucia Bay 71. 

Santa Maria 20. 

Siio Louieni,'0 78. 

Sao Mignol 20. 

Sao Paolo de Loanda 55. 

Sao Thiaiio 20. 

Sao Thoni^ 46. 

Savi (Xavier) 36. 

Say 13, 21, 39. 

Scarries 25. 

Sebbe 35. 

Secomdi 30. 

Sedhiu 26. 

Sefui 30. 

Segu Sikoro 21. 

Sella 8. 

Semien 97. 

Semio's Capital 47. 

Semliki River 87, 88. 

Semsen 93. 

Senegal 21. 

Senegambia 21. 

Senna 76. 

Sennaar 1, 6. 

Seychelles 80. 

Shari 42, 44. 

Shashi-River 66. 

Sherbro Island 29 

Shire 68. 

Shea 91, 92, 94, 97, 98. 

Shoshong 64. 

Shotts 12. 

Shott el-dsherid 10. 

Shott el-Gharbi 11. 

Sidama 97, 98. 

Sidshilmessa 15. 

Sierra Leone 21, 29. 

Sinai Peninsula 2. 

Sinu 33. 

Slave Coast 31. 

Snussija 1. 

Sofala 76. 

Sokna 8. 

Sokoto 23, 39. 

Sokotra 89. 

Solum 1. 

Somali 2, 87, 89, 91. 
Somalia Italiana 93. 
South African Republic 

73, 75. 
St. Brandon 80, 
St. Denis 81. 
St. Helena 57. 


St. Louis 21, 24. 

St. Marie 78, 79. 

St. Mary of Bat hurst 29. 

St. Paul 81. 

St. Pierre 82. 

St. Piotro River 25. 32. 

Slefanie Lake 97. 

Stellaland 64. 

SuAkin 2 

Soudan (Sudan) 1, 2, 5. 

Sudan, Central 41. 

Suez 2. 

Suez Canal 2. 

Sumbo 76. 

Sus 15. 

Swasiland 71, 74. 

Sweet River 31. 

Tadshura 91, 92. 

Tafilelt 15. 

Taiserbo 8. 

Taka 1, 6. 

Takale 6. 

Tamaneb 6 

Tamarida 91. 

Tamatave 78, 79. 

Tana River 83 

Tanganyika 50, 68, 69. 

Tangiers 16 

Tarabulus 7. 

Tati Gold District 66. 

Tazzerult 15. 

Tchertcher 97. 

Tebessa 10. 

Tegeri 8. 

Tel el-kebir 4. 

Temaneb 7. 

Tembuland 60. 

Tete 76. 

Tetuan 16. 

Tibati's Dominion 44. 

Tibesti 8. 

Tidikelt 13. 

Tieba's Dominion 24. 

Tigre 95, 97. 

Timbuctoo 23. 

Todshie 34, 35. 

Togo 34. 

Togoland 33. 

Tokar 7. 

Tombo 27. 

Tongoland 71. 

Tongola River 71. 

Transkei 60. 

Transvaal 62, 67, 73. 

Trarza 23. 

Tripolis (Tripoli) 7. 

Tristan da Cunha 56. 

Tristao 27, 

Trois Freres-Islands 80. 

Tromelin 82. 

Tshad Lake Countries 41. 

Tshagos-Islands 80. 

Tshambesi 69. 

Tshantyoan 34. 

Tshinde 69. 

Tshiioango 47. 

Tshobe-River 2, 58. 63. 65. 

Tu 8. 

Tuareg 7. 

Tuat 13, 15. 

Tugela 70. 

Tuggurt 14. 

Tunghi 63. 

Tunis 10. 


Uano 92. 

Dbangi 9, 47, 49, 52. 

Uelle 52. 

Uganda 86, 87, 88. 

Uhehe 85. 

Ukami 83. 

Ukerewe 85. 

Ulala 25, 51. 

Uled Embarek 19, 24. 

Ulundi 62. 

Umba River 83, 88. 

Umsalekaze 62. 

Uniamwesi 85. 

Unioro (Dnyoro) 87. 

Upingtonia 50, 59. 

Urua 25, 51. 

Usagara 83, 85. 

Usambara 85. 

Useguha 83. 

Usige 84. 

Usoga 87. 

Usukuraa 85. 

Dsutu River 71. 

Dtshali 93. 



Vaal 62, 71. 
Vassao 30. 

Velez de la Gomera 18. 
Victoria (Cameroon) 45. 
Victoria Nyanza 84, 85, 89. 
Victoria Republic 71. 
Volia 21, 30, 34, 35. 
Vryheid 63, 74. 


Wadai 5, 8, 41. 
Wadi Draa 15. 
Wadi Nogal 89. 
Wadi Suf 14. 
Wadi Sus 15. 
Wadis River 15. 
Wad Ras 18. 

Wagadugu 25, 34, 37. 

Wahadu 89. 

Walfish Bay 56, 59. 

Wallamo 97. 

Wanga 86. 

Wanjanga 8. 

Wargla 12, 14. 

Warsheik 83, 84, 96. 

War Singeli 90. 

Webi Shebeli 97. 

Wesiln 17. 

West African Colonies 28 

West African Settlements 28 

West Griqualand 60, 62 

Whydah (Weyda, Uida)35, 36 

Windhoek 59. 

Winnebac 30. 

Witu 83, 86 

Wizard 82. 

Wurno 40. 


Xavier (Savi) 36. 
Xesibe 60. 

Yetzoo 91. 

Yola aola) 38, 43. 

Yoruba (Joniba) 31, 35. 


Zambesi 52, 58, 63, 69. 
Zambesia 65. 
Zanzibar 82 
Zejla (Zeyla) 89, 92. 
Ziquincior 27. 
Zomba 69. 
Zululand 70, 71, 74. 
Zumbo 65. 



t a corn 







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notions grammaticales, vocabulaires et phrases. 226 pp. 12mo. cloth. 
1887. 7s. M. 

Kerf an Paul, Trench, Triibner and Co., Limited, Paternoster House, 
Charinr/ Cross Road, London : Oj'icntal Catalogue No. X, 

2 African Ldjujua'jes. 

FREY (Col.). li'Aiiiiaiiiitr, lucir ties laii-ues, Coiiiiiiuiiautu d'ongine, (les 

races Celtitjucs. St-niitiinu's, Soudanaiscs it dc riiido-Chiiie. With 3 maps. 

Svo. 1892. 5.f. . 

III. Oriijino divs Mando, rmillio, Follalis, Borliou'.s, iMaures, de Galoix, etc. 

VII. Siiuilitudos do mots amianiitos ot do mots dos dialectes de la cote des 

Ksolavos. VIII. Id. ties dialectes de rAIVitjuc contiale. 
GHEYN (J. van don). La langue rongalaise et les idionies bantous d'ajJii'S le 

Keent onvrage du pcre Torrend. 29 pp. Svo. 1892. Is. 6d 
GREGORIO (G. de). Cenni di glottologia Rantu (Sud-Africana). pp. 152, 

Svo. 1S8-2. is. 
A .-^eoond-hand cojiy with numerous MSS. notes, 3s. 
GUIRAUDON (Th. Gr. de). Notes de linguistique Afiicaine : Les Puis. 

;".'> pji. Svo. Vionne, 1887. 2s. 
JACOTTET (E.). Etudes sur les langues du Haute -Zambeze, Testes 

originaux recueillis et traduits en fran^'ais et precedes d'une esquisse 

Vol. I. Grammaire soubiya et louye. xxxvii. and 133 pp. 8vo. 1896. 6s. 

JOHNSON (H.) and CHRISTALLER (J.). Vocabularies of the Niger and 

Gold Coast, West Africa. 34 pp. 12mo. limp cloth. 1886. Is. 6d. 
Includes Yoruba, Nupi, Kakanda, Igbira, Igara, Ibo, Ga and Obutu. 
KOELLE (S. W.). Polyglotta Africana ; or, Comparative Vocabulary of 

nearly three hundred words and phrases in more than one hundred distinct 

African Languages. Folio, cloth, pp. 24 and 188. 1854. £1 Is. 
KOLBE (F. W.). A Language Study based on Bantu; or, an inquiry into 

the laws of root-formation, the original plural, the sexual dual, and the 

principles of word -comparison. With tables illustrating the primitive 

pronominal system restored in the African Bantu family of speech. 

pp. viii. and 97, with 4 tables. Post 8vo. cloth. 1888. 6s. 
KRAPF (J. L.). Vocabulary of Six East -African Languages (Kienaheli, 

Kinika, Kikamba, Kipokomo, Kihian, Kigalla). pp. x. and 64. 4to. 

cloth. 1850. 5s. 
LAST (J. T.). Polyglotta Africana Orientalis ; or, a Comparative Collection 

of 250 Words and Sentences in 48 Languages and Dialects spoken south of 

the Equator, and Additional Words in 19 Languages, with Linguistic Map. 

8vo. cloth, pp. xii. and 239. 1885. 4s. 
LEMAIRE (Ch.). Vocabulaire pratique franyais-anglais, zanzibarite (swahili), 

liote, kibangi-irebou, mongo, bangalas. 48 pp. 8vo. 1894. 2s. 6f^. 
LORD'S PRAYER (The) in three hundred languages, comprising the leading 

languages and their principal dialects throughout the world, with the jjlaces 

where spoken. With a preface, by the late Dr. R. Rost. Second edition. 

100 pp. 4to. cloth. 1891. 10s. 6d. 
MASQUE RAY (E.). Comparaison d'un vocabulaire du dialecte des Zenaga 

du Senegal avec les vocabulaires correspondants des dialectes des Chawia et 

des Beni Mzab. 61 pp. Svo. 1879. 3s. 
MULLER (Fr.). Linguistischer Theil der Reise der Osterreichischen Fregatte 

Novara um die Erde in 1857-59. 357 pp. 4to. cloth. 1867. 12s. 6cl. 
pp. 1-71 contain the Africanische Sprachen, Hotteutotisch, Bantu und 

Hamitische Sprachen. 
Die Sprachen Basa, Grebo und Kru im westlichen Afrika. 20 pp. 

Svo. 1877. Is. 

Die aequatoriale Sprachfamilie in Central-Afrika. 2 parts, 22 pp. 

Svo. 1889. Is. 6d. 

Kegan Paul, Trench, Trnhner and Co., Limited, Paternoster House, 
Charing Cross Road, London: Oriental Catalogue No. X, 

African Languages— Aduma, Affar, Agau, Arpti, Akra. 3 

OUTLINE of a Vocabulary of a few of the Principal Languages of Western 

and Central Africa, compiled for the use of the Niger Expedition. Square 

8vo. (oblong), cloth, pp. vii. and 213. 1841. Out of print. Scarce. Is.M. 

This vocabulary comprises the Mandingo, Banibarra, Fanti, and Ashanti and 

Wolof languages. 

SCHLEICHER (A. W.). Afrikanische Petrefacten. Ein Versuch die gi-am- 
matischen Bildungen und Formwurzeln der Afrikanischen Sprachen durch 
Sprachvergleichung festzustellen. 93 pp. 8vo. 1891. 3s. 

SEIDEL (A.). Praktische Grammatiken der Hauptsprachen Deutsch- 
Slidwestafrikas : Nama, Otyiherero und Oshindonga. In one volume. 
180 pp. 12mo. cloth. No date (1892). 2s. M. 
Each grammar contains elementary rules for beginners, reading matter, and a 

SHAW (A. Downes). A Pocket Vocabulary of the Ki-Swahili, Ki-Nyika, 
Ki-Taita, and Ki-Kamba Languages. Also a Brief Vocabulary of the 
Kibwyo Dialect. Collected by Archdeacon Farler. Small 8vo. cloth, 
pp. V. 204. 1885. 6s. 

STEERE (E., LL.D.). Short Specimens of the Vocabularies of three Unpub- 
lished African Languages (Gindo, Zaramo, and Angazidja). Small 8vo. 
sewed, pp. 21. 1869. Is. 

TOR REND (J.). Comparative Grammar of the South-African Bantu lan- 
guages, comprising those of Zanzibar, Mozamlnque, the Zambesi, Kafirland, 
Benguela, Angola, the Congo, the Ogowe, the Cameroons, the Lake Region, 
&c. 336 pp. royal 8vo. cloth. 1891. £1 5s. 
Detailed prospectus sent post-ft-ee on demand. 

WATSON (C. M.). Comparative Vocabularies of the Languages spoken at 
Suakin : Arabic, Hadendoa, Beni-Amer. 16 pp. 4to. 1888. 2s. Qd. 

DAHIN. Vocabulaire adouma - francais et franfais - adouma. 72 pp. 8vo. 
1895. 6s. 

AFFAR or ADALI (An Abyssinian Dialect). 
COLIZZA (Giov.). Lingua Afar. Nel Nord-Est dell' Africa. Grammatica, 

testi e Vocabolario. pp. xii. and 153, 8vo. 1886. 6s. 
REINISCH (L.). Die Afar-Spraehe mit Gespriichen und Wiirterbuch. 3 parts, 

112, 124, and 82 pp. 8vo. 1885-87. 5s. M. 

AGAU (Jewish Dialect in Abyssinia). 
HALEVY (J). Essai sur la langue Agau ; le dialecte des Falachas (Juifs 

d'Aljyssinie). 33 pp. 8vo. 1873. 2s. M. 
WALDMEIER (Th.). "Wortersammlung aus der Agausprache. 29 pp. 8vo. 
1868. 2s. M. 

JEAND'HEUR (F.). Vocabulaire francais-agni. 61 pp. 8vo. 1893. 

AKRA or GA (Gold Coast). 
CHRISTALLER (J. G.) and SCHOPF (J.). Primer in the Ga or Akra 
Language. (New edition.) 8vo. viii. and 48 pp. 1892. Is. 6d 

Kegan Pmd, Trench, Triibner and Co., Limited, Paternoster House, 
Charing Cross Road, London: Oriental Catalogue No. A. 

4 African L>(ii(jiia(/es — ArnhKric, Arahlc. 


A Dirtionary of Knglish, Tshi (Asante), Akra, Tslii (('lnveo\ coniprising, 

as Uiali^cts, Akan (Asante, Akoiii, Akiiaponi), and Fanle ; Akia (Accra), 

connected with Adangmc, &c. Svo. pp. xxiv. and 275. 1874. Out of 

]>rint. 7s. («/. 
CHRISTALLER (J. G.) and BOHNER (II ). iihungcn in dor Akra odor 

Cwi-yprache. 103 jip. Svo. 1890. 'Is. Gd. 
CoNTEsrs. — I. Kurze Si>raclilelirc. II. S;it/.c ans der Umgangssprachc des 

tagliclicn Lchcns. 
ZiiVIIVlERIVIANN(J.). A Grammatical Sketch of the Akra or Ga Language, 

with a Wicahuhiry and an Appendix on the Adanme Dialect. 2 vols. Svo. 

hoards, pp xvi. and 203, and vii. and 464. 1858. 10s. M. 

AMHARIC (Abyssinia). 

D'ABBADIE (A.). Dictionnaire dc la langue Amarinna. xlvii. and 1336 pp. 
Svo. 1881. £2 2s. 

GUIDI (Ig. ). Grammatica elementare della lingua Amarina. 2nd Edition, 
63 ])p. Svo. 1892. 5s. 

SuUe coningazioni del verlio Aniarico. 18 pp. Svo. 1893. Is. Qd. 

ISENBERG (Ch. W.). Grammar of the Amharic Language, pp. 184, royal 
Svo. cloth. 1842. 12s. 

MONDON-VIDAILHET (C.). Manuel pratique de langue Abyssiue (Am- 
haricjue). 201 pp. post Svo. 1891. Ss. 

PIANO (F.). Raccolta delle frasi piu usuali tradotte dall' Italiano in Amarico. 
2nd Edition, revised and corrected. 125 pp. 12mo. 1887. 2s. 

PRAETORIUS (F.). Die Amharische Sprache. In two parts. 523 pp. 4to. 
1878-79. £1 10s. 

ARABIC (Algerian Dialect). 

BELKASSEM (Ben Sedira). Cours pratique de langue arabe. 3rd Edition. 
1888. 3s. Qd. 

Dictionnaire francais-arabe et arabe -f ran fais de la langue parlee en 

Algerie. 4th Edition.' 12mo. i)p. Ixiv. and 928, cloth. 1882-86. 5s. 
each volume. 

Manuel ejjistolaire de langue arabe. Svo. 1894. 5s. 

Contents. — Lettres et mss. divers avec transcription, notes et vocabulaire. 

Petit dictionnaire arabe-frau9ais (dialect algerien). xii. and 608 pp. 

12mo. cloth. 1882. 5s. 

Dialogues fraugais-arabes, recueil des phrases les plus usuelles 

de la langue parlee en Algerie. 3rd Edition. 32mo. pjj. vii. and 370. 
1889. 3s. 

Cours dc httcrature arabe, recueil de versions litteraires tirees du 

Mostatref, des Mille et une nuits, des fables de Bidpai, des jirairies d'or, &c., 
munies de voyelles. 2nd Edition. 368, 364, and xiv. pp. Svo. cloth. 
1S91. 10s. 

Added are towards 500 verses and an Arabic-French vocabulary of all words 
contained in the volume. 

Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner and Co., Limited, Paternoster House, 

Chariivj Cross Road, London : Oriental Catalogue No. X. 

African Langudrjes— Arabic. 5 

BRESNIER. Chrestomathic arabe : Lettres, actes et pieces diverscs avec la 
traduction fraiK^aiseen regard, accompagnee de notes etd' observations suivie 
d'une notice sur les successions nuisulmaues et d'une concordance incdite 
des calendriers gregorieu et umsulman. 2nd Edition. 8vo. 12s. 
BRESNIER. Anthologie arabe elementaire, choix de niaximes et de textes 
varies, la plupart inedits, accompagnes d'un vocabulaire arabe-fran9ais. 
Small Svo. 5s. 
BUSSY (R. de). Dictionnaire frangais-arabe de la langue parlce en Algerie. 

3rd Edition. 12rno. 1894. 3s. 6d. 
DELAPORTE (J. H.). Guide de la conversation arabe-fran9aise, avec le mot 
a mot et la prononciation interlineaire figuree en caracteres francais. 3rd 
Edition. Oblong Svo. 7s. 
DELAPORTE. Cours de versions arabes (idiome d' Alger) contenaut 
les fables de Lokman et les fables clioisies d'Esope. 3rd Edition. 
Svo. 5s. 
DUCRET (E.) Arabic Copy-books. A series of S progi-essive parts on ruled 
writing paper, with models at the top of each page. 4to. 2s. 6rf. 
They show only the Algerian handwriting. 
DUMONT (M. X.). Guide de la lecture des raauuscrits arabes. 107 pp. 
royal Svo. 1S42. 5s. 
A collection of autographed Arabic private and business letters, contracts, 
invoices, prayers, stories, etc., with French translation. 
EIDENSCHENK. Mots usuels de la laugue arabe. 296 pp. Svo. 1897. 4s. 
HOUDAS et DELPHIN. Recueil de lettres arabes manuscrites. 4to. 5s. 
LAUNE. Manuel franfais-arabe ou recueil d' actes administratifs, judiciaires 
et sous seigns prives. Arabic text with French translation. Small Svo. 
7s. 6d. 
MACHUEL (L.). Une premiere aunee d'arabe. 2nd Edition. 136 pp. Svo. 
boards. 1892. 2s. 

Methode pour I'etude de I'arabe parle (idiome algerien). 4th Edition. 

ISmo. pp. xvi. and 456. 1888. 5s. 

Manuel de I'arabisant ou recueil de pieces arabes. 

Fart I. Lettres administi'atives, judiciaires, politiques, etc. Small Svo. 

boards. 6s. 
Part II. Actes divers pourvus de toutes les voyelles. Small Svo. 

boards. 6s. 
MOD LI ERAS (A.). Manuel algerieu. Gramraaire, chrestomathie et lexique. 

Svo. cloth, pp. viii. and 288. 1888. 5s. 

ARABIC (Egyptian Dialect). 

BERNARD (H.). Vocabulaire frangais-egyptien. 3rd Edition. 12mo. 1877. 
3s. ijd. 
In Roman characters only. 
CAMERON (D. A.). Arabic - English Vocabulary (Egyptian vernacular 
dialect). 319 pp. Svo. cloth. 1892. 12s. 
The pronunciation of the Arabic words is given in Roman characters. 
GAD (J.). Dictionnaire frangais-arabe des termes judiciaires administratives 
et commerciaux. 1590 pp. 2 vols. 4to. 1894. £2. 

Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner and Co., Limited, Paternoster House, 
Charing Cross lioad, London: Oriental Catalogue No. X. 

6 A/n'ran Lamjiiw/es — Arabic. 

GREEN (A. 0.). A rnvctioal Arabic Gramnuir. 

Vavt I. 3rd Edition. Contains tiie wliole accidence and a slioit syntax. 
Every lesson contiiins reading exercises, with inteiliiiear iironunciation in 
Roman characters, conversations, English and Arabic exercises, vocabulary, 
&c. 19S pii. post Svo. cloth. 1893. 7s. 6(/. 

Part II. 3rd Edition, enlarged and revised. Forms a key to Part I. The 
English exercises arc rendered into colloquial Egyjitian- Arabic, and the 
stories into a more literary style, with the word points and diacritical 
marks added ; a collection of newsjiaiier extracts and telegiams, letters and 
manuscripts; and an English- Aralnc vocabulary of 3000 words and an 
Arabic- English vocabulary of 1500 words; and a comparative table of 
classical and modern Arabic forms and expressions for the use of advanced 
students. 290 pp. post Svo. cloth. 1893. 10s. 6d. 

The iirst two editions of this second part were printed by the British Govern- 
ment and never sold to the public. 

HABEICHE (J. J.). Dictionnaire fran9ais-arabe, i>our Ic dialectc egyptien. 
^ 2nd Edition. 960 pp. Svo. boards. 1896. £1 Is. 
The Arabic words are given in Arabic characters only. 

HARFOUCHE (J.). Le drogman arabe ou guide pratique de I'arabe parlc 
en caraclcrcs romains pour la Syrie, I'Egypte et la Palestine. 354 pp. 
12ino. cloth. 1894. 5s. 
L'ouvrage contient un abregc de gramniaire, un vocabulaire, des dialogues 
vaiics, des arabismes et des proverbes. 

HARTMANN (M.). Arabisclier SprachftUirer fiir Reisende. 2nd Edition, 
revi.sed, 16mo. limp roan. 1895. 5s. 
Arabic in the Syi'ian and Egyptian dialects (in English characters). 
It forms a volume of the " Meyer's Sprachfuehrcr " Series. 

KASSAB and HAM MAM. Arabic-English Dictionary. 803 pp. post Svo. 
cloth. 1SS8. 10,>'. ^ 

Contains words of the Egyptian and Syiiac spoken dialects, as well as those 
of the written classical language. 

LANSING (T. G.). Arabic Manual. 2nd Edition, xv. and 194 pp. royal 
Svo. cloth. 1891. 12s. 
The work is divided in four parts, viz., the Orthography, Etymology, 
Paradigms, and a Chrestomathy [containing some parts of the Genesis and 
Ko»an in Arabic, with a transliteration, translation, and a vocabulary]. 

MANTELL (A. M.). Arabic-English Dictionary of Military Terms. 72 pp. 
royal Svo. 1SS6. 3s. 
The English-Arabic part is out of print. 

MARCEL (J. J.). Dictionnaire franjais-arabe des dialectes vidgaires d'Alger, 
d'Egy])te, de Tunis et du Maroc. 5th Edition, revised and corrected, 
pp. XV. and 584. 1885. 7s. 6d. 

NAKHLAH (Yakoub). New Manual of English and Arabic conversation. 
217 ]>\i .small Svo. 1874. 4s. 
In Arabic and Roman characters. 

PALMER (The late E. H.). Arabic Manual, comprising a condensed Grammar 
of both the classical and modern Arabic, reading lessons and exercises with 
analyses, and an English-Arabic vocabulary of useful words. 3rd Edition. 
315 pp. 12mo. bound. 1891. 7s. 6d. 

■PIZZI (T.). Piccolo manuale dell' arabo vulgare d'Egitto con temi da tradurse 
dall'arabo i Italiano e dall'Italiano i arabo con vocabulario del terni. pp. 
192, 16mo. 1886. 2s. 6d. 

Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner and Co., Limited, Paternoster House, 
Chariin/ Cross Road, London: Oriental Catalogue No. X. 

African Languages — Arahi'\ 7 

PLUNKETT (G. T.). English-Arabic Vocabulary, compiled for the use of 
English residents and travellers in Egypt. 108 pp. 12mo. 1886. 2s. %d. 
It contains 3650 words, including many technical terms required by military 
men, engineers, builders, travellers on the Nile, &c. In Roman characters 

PROBST (F.). Aegyptischer Sprachfilhrer ini aegyptischen Dialect (Gram- 
matik, arab-deutsch und deutsch-arab Vocabular, Gesprache). 280 pp. 
post 8vo. bound. 1894. 5s. 

SEIDEL (A.). Praktisches Handbuch der arabischen Umgangssprache aegypt- 
ischen Dialectes mit zahlreichen Ubungsstllcken und einem ausfulirlichen 
• arobo-deutschem Worterbuch. 310 pp. 8vo. 1894. (New issue of 1896.) 
10s. Qd. 
Printed in Roman characters only. 

SPIRO (S.). Arabic-English A''ocabulary of the colloquial Arabic of Egypt, 
containing the vernacular idioms and expressions, slang phrases, &c., used 
by the native Egyptians. 661 pp. 8vo. cloth. 1895. 25s. 
All Arabic words are printed in Arabic and Roman characters. 

SPITTA-BEY. Grammatik des Vulgaer-Dialectes .ffigyptens. xxxi. and 
519 pp. royal 8vo. cloth. 1880. £1 6s. 

STAGE (E. v.). English-Arabic Vocabulary for the use of Students for the 
Colloquial. 218 pp. 8vo. cloth. 1893. 12s. 
Forms the counterpart to "Cameron's Arabic -English Vocabulary." The 
Arabic words are printed in Arabic characters. 

THIMM (C. A.). Egyptian Arabic self-taught, for the practical use of 

travellers, a.o. 70 pp. 8vo. cloth. 1897. 2s. 6f^. 
TIEN (A.). Manual of Colloquial Arabic, comprising practical rules for 
learning the language, vocabulary, dialogue, letters, and idioms, &c., in 
English and Arabic. New and revised edition. 419 pp. 12mo. 1891. 
7s. Qd. 
All Arabic words are printed in Arabic types, M-ith their pronunciation in 
Roman characters. 

Egyptian, Syrian, and North African Handbook. 176 pp. 12mo. 

1882. 4s. 

A simple phrasebook in English and Arabic for the use of the British forces, 
civilians, and residents in Egypt. [In Roman characters only.] 

VOLLERS (Dr. K.). Lehrbuch der jegypto-arabischen Umgangssprache mit 
Uebungen und einem Glossar. xi. and 231 pp. post 8vo. 1890. Cloth, 
7s. Qd. In ■WTapper, 6s. 6(/. 

Grammar of the modern Egyptian Arabic, with exercises, reading 

lessons, and glossaries. Translated into English by F. C. Burkitt. 276 pp. 
8vo. cloth. 1895. 10s. M. 

WORTABET (J.) and PORTER (H.). English-Arabic and Arabic-English 
Dictionary, for the use of schools. 368 and 366 pp. 2 vols, bound in one, 
small 8vo. half-calf. 1894. 17s M. 

WORTABET (W. T.). Arabic-English Dictionary, compiled with the assist- 
ance of Rev. Dr. J. Wortabet and Prof. Harvey Porter. 2nd Edition, 
revised, 803 and 14 pp. 8vo. half-bound. 1893. £1 Is. 
To the classical words are added many modern words. A supplement contains 
words used especially in Egypt, and a list of military and technical terms 
employed by the Government I)ei)artments. The past and present future 
forms of the verb and the noun of action or noun of triliterals in full 
are given. 

Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner and Co., Limited, Paternoster House, 
Charing Cross Road, London: Oriental Catalogue No. X. 

8 African LaiKjiiagcs — Arabic, Atiaiifc. 

ARABIC (Morocco Dialect). 

AYUSO vl^. !■"• ('•'I- Oi;uuatii';i-aral)C, luetodo teorico jn-actico. 2iul Edition, 

ooni'otod and onlargod. 146 pp. 8vo. 1883. 6s. 
BALDWIN (C. W.). Dialogas espanoles y arabigos. 12iuo. cloth. 1893. 
7*-. 6(/. 

English - Arabic Dialogues, for llie use of .students in Morocco. 

Revised and edited by "VV." Mackintosh. 115 i)p. 12mo. cloth. 1893. 
7s. 6(L 
All Arabic words are printed in the Arabic character. 
LERCHUNDI (Fr. Jose). Rudinientos del arabe vulgar que sc habla en el 
iniii^rio de !^larrueeo.s. 2nd Edition, enlarged and revised, xvi., 463, and 
56 pp. Svo. 1889. 15s. 
Content.*:.— I. Nociones preliminares, pp. 1-26; II. Del articulo, nombre y 
prononibre, pp. 27-174 ; III. Del verbo y del iiarticipio, pp. 175-330, &c. 

Vocabulario cspanol-arabigo (Morocco dialect). 863 pp. Svo. 1892. 

£1 Is. 
LERCHUNDI Y SIMONET. Crestomatia arabigo-espanola, 6 coleccion de 
fragnientos, historicos, geogra[ihicos y literarios relatios a la Espana arabe 
seguida de un vocabulario de todos los tenninos contenidos en dichos 
iVagmentos. 2 vols. 8vo. 1881-82. 18s. 6d. 
MEAKIN (J. G. B.). Morocco Arabic Series. 

Vol. I. Morocco Arabic [Maghribin Arabic] Vocabulary and Grammar Notes. 
256 pp. 12mo. cloth. 1891. 6s. 
Contents. — Introductory note and practical hints, pp. 1-16 ; Grammatical 
notes, pp. 17-39 ; English-Arabic vocabulary [in Roman characters only] 
classified according to subjects, and alphabetical English index to it, 
pp. 40-256. 
Vol.11. English-Arabic Dialogues. See under " Baldwin." 
SOCIN (A.). Zuni arabischen Dialect von Marokko. 8vo. 1893. 3s. 

ARABIC (Tunisian Dialect). 

BEAUSSIER (M.). Dictionuaire pratique arabe-fran9ais, contenant tous les 
mots dans I'arabe parle en Algerie et en Tunisie, ainsi que dans le style 
epistolaire, les pieces usuelles et actes judiciaires. 764 and 8 i)p. 4to. cloth. 
1887. £2. 

STUM ME (H.). Graramatik des tunisischen Arabisch nebst Glossar. 183 pp. 
8vo. 1896. 9s. 

ARABIC (Zanzibar Dialect). 

MORITZ (B.). Sammlung arabischer Schriftstuecke mit einem Glossar. 
136 pp. Arabic text and 22 Arabic photographed facsimile plates, xxxiv. 
and 112 pp. in German. 8vo. cloth. 1892. 16s. 
Forms Vol. IX. of the " Lehrbucchor des Seminars fuer orientalische S])rachen 
zu Berlin," and refers to the dialects of Zanzibar and of German East 


(Guinea Coast, West Africa). 

CHRISTALLER (.J. G.). A Grammar of the Asante or Fante Language called 
Tshi (Cliwee, Twi), based on the Akuapera Dialect, with Reference to the 
other (Akan and Fante) Dialects, pp. xxiv. and 203, 8vo. clotli. 1875. 
10s. 6d. 

Kegan Paul, Trench, Triihner and Co., Limited, Paternoster House, 
Charinrj Cross Road, London: Oriental Catalogue No. X. 

African Languages — Bambara, Barea, Bari, Beclniana. 9 

CHRISTALLER (J. G.). A Dictionary of the Asaiite or Fante Language 
called Tshi (Cliwee, Twi). "With a Grammatical Introduction and 
Appendices on the Geography of the Gold Coast, pp. xxviii. and 671, 
8vo. cloth. 1881. £1. 

RMS (H. N.). Grammatical Outline of the Oji Language, with espeaial 
Reference to the Akwapim Dialect, and an Akwapim- English and English- 
Akwapim Vocabulary, together with a Collection of Proverbs ot the 
Natives. 8vo. cloth, pp. viii. and 276. 1854. (Pub. 10s.) 6s. 

Elemente des Akwapim Dialects der Odshi-Sprache, enthaltend 

"rammatische Gruudzuge und AVortersammlung, nebst eiuer Sammlung 
von Spriichwortern der Eingebornen. pp. xviii. and 322, 8vo. cloth. 
1853. 8s. 

BAMBARA (Upper Niger). 

BINGER (G.). Essai sur la langue bambara, parlee dans le Kaarta et dans le 
Beledougou, suivi d'uu vocabulaire, avec une carte indiquant les contrees oil 
separlecette langue. 12mo. pp. 133, cloth. 1886. 4s. 


(Negro Dialect on the Nubian and Abyssinian Frontier). 
R BIN ISC H (L.). Die Barea Sprache. Grammatik, Text, und AVorterbuch, 
nach den handschriftlichen Materialien vou W. JIunzinger. 186 pp. 
8vo. 1874. 6s. 

BARI (Upper Nile Basin). 
MITTERRUTZNER (J. C). Sprache der Bari. Grammatik, Text, und 
Worterbuch. 8vo. sewed, pp. xxv. and 261. 1867. 5s. Added is a 
small vocabulary of the Ngyang-Bara language, by Morlang. 
MULLER (F.), Die Sprache der Bari. Ein Beitrag zur Afrikanischen 
Linguistik. 8vo. boards, pp. 84, interleaved. 1864. Is. 6d. 
Contents.— Grammatik, Lesestticke, deutsch-bari und bari-deutsches Glossar. 


(A Kaffir Dialect). 
ARCHBELL (J.). Grammar of the Bechuana Language. 8 vo. boards. Very 

scarce. 1837. 15s. 
CRISP (W.). Notes towards a Secoaiia Grammar. Second Edition. 8vo. 

pp. 104. 1886. 2s. 6c;. 
ENDEMANN (K.). Versuch einer Grammatik des Sotho. 201 pp. 8vo. 

1876. 6.V. 
JACOTTET (E.). Elementary sketch of the Se-Suto grammar. 71 pp. 8vo. 

1892. 5s. 
KRUGER (F. H.). Steps to learn the Sesuto language, comprising an elementary 

grammar, graduate exercises, and a short vocabulary. 2nd Edition. 98 pp. 

8vo. limp cloth. 1883. 5s. 
MABILLE (A.). Se-Suto-English and English-Se-Suto Vocabulary ; and E. 

Jacottet, Elementary Sketch of tlie Se-Suto Grammar. Two works bound 

in one volume. 487 pp. 8vo. cloth. 1893. 10s. 6d. 

Kegan Paul, Trench, Triihner and Co., Limited, Paternoster House, 
Charing Gross Road, London: Oriental Catalogue No. X. 

10 Afriran LamjiKi'jo^ — Bedainje, Bviilairi, Bvuijuela, Berber, Bit in. 

BEDAUYE (Xouth-East Afuica). 

REINISCH [I,.), lu'ilauvo Siuache in Nordost-Africa. 3 iiaits, 74, 80, and 
204 i>p. liivgc Svo. 1893-94. Gs. 

AVortcrlmch dor Bcdaiiyo Spvache. 365 i)p. Svo. 1895. 16s. 

BEIDAWI (TuiBKs OF THE North-Eastern Soudan). 

HAIG (F. T.). Toiitativo <(ranniiar of the l>eida\vi language, spoken l)y tlie 
ttil'cs of the Xorth-Eastcrn Soudan, with slioit vocabularies and sentences. 
79 pp. post Svo. 1895. 3s. 

BENGUELA, or BENGA (West Africa). 

SALVADO Y COS i^Rdo. P. F.). Colcccion de Apuntcs Preliminares sobre la 
Lengua Benga 6 sea Iiitroduccion a una Graniatica de Este Idioma que se 
habla en la Isla do Corisco, Puel)los de Su Bahi'a e Islas Adyacentcs. pp. 
148, 31. Svo. cloth. 1891. 7s. U. , 

SCHUCHARDT (H.). Ueber die Benguela-sprache. Royal Svo. pp. 14. 
1883. Is. Qd. 

BERBER (North Africa). 

BASSET (K.). Notes de lexicographic berbere. 4 parts. 62, 111, 8S, and 
100 pp. Svo. 1883-88. 15s. 

Le dialecte de Syouah : Grammaire et glossaire. viii. and 98 pp. Svo. 

1890. 4s. 

Loqman Berbere : texte berbere et transcription avec glossaire et une 

etude sur la legende de Loqman. 409 pp. Svo. 1890. 10s. 

Etudes sur les dialectes berberes. xiv. and 165 pp. Svo. 1894. 7s. 

Etude sur la zenatia du Mzab, de Ouargla et de I'Oued-Rir. xv. and 

•274 pp. Svo. 1892. 10s. M. 
FAIDHERBE (Le General). Le Zenaga des tribus senegalaises. Contribution 
;i IVtude de la langue berbere. Large Svo. sewed, pp. 95. 1877. 4s. 6rf. 

GABELENTZ (G. von der). Verwandtschaft des Baskisehen mit den Berber- 

sprachen Xord-Afrikas herausgegeben nach den hinterlassenen Manuscripten 

durch A. G. Graf von der Schulenburg. 286 pp. text, with 4 tables. Svo. 

1894. 12s. 
MERCIER (G.). Le Chaouia de I'Aures (dialecte de I'Ahmar-Khaddou) Etude 

graniniaticale. Texte en dialecte chaouia. Svo. 1897. 3s. &d. 
RINN (L.). Les origines berberes : etudes linguistiqiies et ethnologiques. Svo. 

1889. 10s. 
SIERAKOWSKI (A. Graf). Das Schaui. Ein Beitrag zur berbcrischen 

Spraehen und Voelkerkunde. 138 pp. Svo. 1871. 4s. 
VENTURE DE PARADIS. Grammaire et dictionnairc abreges de la langue 

berbere, revus par. P. Am. .Jaubert. pp. 235, 4to. 1844. 12s. &d. 

BILIN, or BOGOS (North-East Africa). 

REINISCH (L.). Die Bilinsprache in Nordost-Africa mit einer Ubersichts- 
tabelle der Verbformen. 138 pp. Svo. 1882. 2s. M. 

Die Bilin-Sprache. 

Vol. L Texte der Bilin-Sprache. Royal Svo. pp. viii. and 322. 1883. 10s. 
Vol. n. Worterbuch der Bilin-Sprache. Royal Svo. pp. vi. and 426. 
1887. £1. 

Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner and Co., Limited, Paternoster House, 
Charing Cross Road, London : Oriental Catalogue No. X. 

^ African Langnages—Bf'shari, Bornv, Biibi, BnJIoni, Bunda. 11 

BISHARI (Nubia). 
ALMKVIST (H.). Die Bischari-Sprache Tu-Bedawie in Nordost-Afrika. 
2 vols. 4to. sewed, pp. v. and 302 and vi. and 113. 1881-85. £1 10s. 
Contents : Vol. I. Grammatik. 

Vol. II. Bischari-deutsch nnd dentscli-biscliari Worterhuch. 

BORNU, or KANURI (Central Africa). 

KOELLE (S. W.). Grammar of the Bornu or Kannri Language. 8vo. cloth, 
pp. xix. and 326. 1854. 7s. 6d 

African Native Literature or Proverbs, Tales, Fables, and Historical 

Fragments in the Kanuri or Bornu Language, to which are added a Trans- 
lation of the above and a Kanuri-English Vocabulary. Royal 8vo. cloth, 
pp. xiv. and 434. 1854. 7s. M. 

NORRIS (E.). Grammar of the Bornu or Kanuri Language. With Dialogues, 
Translations, and Vocabulary. 8vo. pp. 101. (Out of print and scarce.) 
1853. 6s. 

BUBI (Spoken on Island of Fernando Po). 
JUANOLA (J.). Primer paso a la lengua Bubi 6 sea ensayo a una gramatica 
de este idioma seguido do tres apendices. 189 pp. 8vo. 1890. 6s. 


(Dialect of Mandigo vernacular, near Sierra Leone, West Africa). 
NYLANDER (Rev. G. R. ). Grammar and Vocabulary of the Bullom Language, 
pp. 159, small 8vo. cloth. 1814. 4s. 


(Loanda, West Africa). 

CANNECATTIM (F. B. M. de). CoUec^ao de observa9oes grammaticaes 

sobre a lingua Bunda, ou Angolense. 4to. half-bound, pp. xx. and 218. 

1805. 10s. U. 

The same. Second Edition, xviii. and 174 pp. 8vo. 1859. 7s. Qd. 

Diccionario da lingua Bunda, ou Angolense, explicada na Portugueza, 

e Latina. pp. ix. 720, 8vo. 1S04. Bound up in one vokime with 

F. B. M. DE CANNECATTIM, Collec9ao de observa95es grammaticaes sobre a 

lingua Bunda ou Angolense e diccionario abreviado da lingua Congueza. 

Sec°ond Edition. 174 pp. 8vo. 1859. £2 2s. 
CASTAGNA (N.). Di alcuni vocaboli e modi del vernacolo angolano col 

riscontro italiano o toscano. 32 pp. 12mo. 1891. Is. 6^. 
CHATELAIN (H.). Grammatica clementar do Kimbundu ou lingua de 

Angola, xxiv. and 172 pp. 8vo. 1889. Out of print. 7s. 6(i 
CORDEIRO DA MATT A. Ensaio de diccionario kimbundu -portugiiez. 

174 pp. 8vo. 1893. 4s. 
WOODWAR D (W. H. ). Collections for a Handbook of the Boondei Language. 

8v<). cloth. 1882. 4s. , , t. i- t. t, j • 

Contains grammatical notes and a Boondei-English and English-iioondei 

Kegan Paul, Trench, Trilbner and Co., Limited, Paternoster House, 
Charing Cross Road, London: Oriental Catalogue No, X. 

12 A/n'ran Laiujxuiges — Cape Dufi-Ji, C/niniir, Dalioiteij, Denlxa. 


MANSFELT (N.)- Troovo van coii Kanpscli-HoUandscli idioticon met toelicht 
oil oimierk. 8vo. 1884. Cv. 

VILJOEN (W. J.). Bcitriigo zur Gcschiclite dcr Cap Ilollaiidisclieii Sprache. 
1)8 jip. Svo. 1896. 2s. 

CHAMIR (Abyssinia). 

REINISCH (L.). Die Chaniiispraehe in Abessinien. 2 parts, 127 and 136 pp. 
with two large tables, Svo. 1884. 5s. 

DAHOMEY (Guinea Coast). 

BONNAVENTURE (A.)- Kloments de granimaire do la langne fon on 
dahouK'enno, siiivis d'un voeabiilairo et d'lin rceueil de conversation. 
74 pp. Svo. 1895. 2s. M. 

COURDIOUX Dictionnaire de la langue Tog-be ou dalionieenne. Svo. 
\'ol. I. Francais-tlalionieen. 1879. 4s. 6d. 

DELAFOSSE (M.). Manuel dahonieen cont. une gramniaire, clircstoniathie, 
et 1111 diutioiiiuiire fraiiijais-dalionieeu et dahomeen-fraii9ais. 436 pp. Svo. 
1894. 10s. 

DENKA, or DINKA (Kordofan). 

BELTRAME (G. ). Graiumatiea della lingua denka. 159 pp. Svo. 1870. 5s. 

MITTERRUTZNER (J. C). Die Dinka-Sprache in Central Afrika ; kurze 
Graiiiinatik, Text, und Dinkaisch-Deutsch-Italienisclies Wiirterbuch. Svo. 
pp. 308. 1866. 7s. 

DUALLA (At Fernando Po, West Coast). 

CHRISTALLER (J. G.). Handbuch der Dualla-Sprache. 216 pp. Svo. cloth, 
1892. 4s. M. 

SEIDEL (A.). Leitfaden zur Erleruung der Dualla-sprache in Kamerun mit 
Lesestuecken und eineni deutseh-dualla und dualla-deutscliem Woerterbuche. 
S3 pp. large Svo. 1892. 3s. 

EFIK (Old Calabar). 

{Chief Language on the estuary of the Cross river), 

GOLDIE (H.). Principles of Efik grammar, with specimen of the language. 
105 pp. 12rao. cloth. 1868. 3s. M. 

Dictionary of the Efik-English and English-Efik Language. 643 

and 42 pp. Svo. bound. N.D. £1 5s. 


(Western Part of the Slave Coast, East of the River Volta). 

EWE-LE.SEFIBEL. 64 pp. Svo. boards. 1892. 2s. 

EWE XECHLE-AGBALE. Ewe Reading Book (Part II.) for the upper 
classes of the elementary schools of the North German Missionary Society. 
160 pp. small Svo. 1886. 

Kegan Pmd, Trench, TrUbner and Co., Limited, Paternoster House, 
Charing Cross Road, London; Oriental Catalogue No. X, 

African Languages— Falasha, Fan, Fernandian, Fiote, Fiilah. 13 

HENRICI (E.). Lelubuch der Ephc [Ewe] Sprache, Anlo-, Anecho-, uud 
Dahome-Mundart, mit Glossar und einer Karte der Sklavenkuste. xxi. and 
270 pp. 8vo. cloth. 1891. 16s. • . i- •, a i 

Forms Vol. VI. of the " Lehrbiicher des Seminars fiir oneutalische hprachen 

zu Berlin." 
KNUESLI (A.). Deutsch-Ewe Woerterbuch. 413 pp. lithographed 4to. cloth. 

1892. £2. 
KNUESLI (J.). Ewe-German-English Dictionary. 1084 pp. lithographed 

small 4to. cloth. 1891. £2. 
SCHLEGEL (J B.). Schliissel zur Ewe-Sprache. Dargeboten in den gram- 

matischen Grundzilgen des Anlo-Dialekts derselben mit Woertersammlung, 

&c. 8vo. pp. xxiv. and 328. 1857. 5s. 

FALASHA (an Agau Dialect, spoken by Jews in Abyssinia). 
FLAD (W J ) Elements and Vocabulary of the Falasha language [spoken in 
Abyssinia]. Ed. by Dr. L. Krapff. 92 pp. 12mo. 1866. Is. U. 

FAN (Western Africa, South of the Equator). 
ZABALA (A. 0.). Vocabulary of the Fan language in Western Africa with 
Spanish interpretations prepared on the spot. vi. and 34 pp. small 8vo. 
1887. 2s. 

FERNANDIAN (Island of Fernando Po). 
CLARKE (J.). Introduction to the Fernandian Tongue. Part I. Second 

Edition, pp. viii. and 56. 8vo. cloth. 1848. 12s. U. 
Contains a comparative table of ten primitive words in 232 African Dialects. 

Very scarce. 

FIOTE (French Congo). 
CARRIE. Grammaire de la langue fiote, dialecte du Kakongo. 198 pp. 

small 8vo. 1890. 
USSEL. Petite gi^ammaire de la langue fiote, dialecte du Loango. 88 pp. 

small 8vo. 1888. 2s. 
VISSEQ (A.). Grammaire fiote (langue du Congo). 64 pp. small 8vo. cloth. 

1889. 2s. M. 
Dictionnaire fran?ais-fiote (langue du Congo). 156 pp. small 8vo. 

cloth. 1889. 3s. 
Dictionnaire francais-fiote (dialecte du Kakongo). 145 pp. small 8vo. 

cloth. 1890. 3s. 
Dictionnaire fiot-fran9ais. 211 pp. small 8vo. cloth. 1890. 4s. 6^^. 


(South of Lower Senegal). 

FAIDHERBE. Grammaire et vocabulaire de la langue poul a I'usage de 
voyageurs dans le Soudan. Second Edition. 165 pp. 12mo. cloth. 1882. ^ 4s. 

GUIRAUDON (T. G. de). Manuel de la langue foule, parlee dans la Sene- 
crambie et Ic Sou.lan (containing a Grammar, Text, and a French-Foule 
Vocabulary). 144 pp. post 8vo. cloth. 1894. 6s. 

Keqan Paul, Trench, Triibner and Co., Limited, Paternoster House, 
Charing Cross Road, London: Oriental Catalogue Ao. A. 

14 Afn'ran LaiKjumjen—Ga/lo, Ghdf, Ginjama, Greho, Harari. 

KRAUSE {G. A.). Beitrag znr Kcnntiiiss dcr Fulischen Sprachc in Afrika. 
lOS i>j>. witli language niaji, Svo. 1884. 4s. 
Fovins Tart I. oftlio " iMitllunlungon dcr Riebcck'sclion Niger Expedition.' 

REICHARDT (I'. J.). Trinier of the Fuldc Language. Svo. cloth. 1859. Is.M. 

REICHARDT (t"!i. A. 1..). Grammar of the Fulde Language, with an 
Ai>peiuli.K of some orii,'inal Traditions and Portions of Scripture translated 
into Fulde, together with 8 ehaiiters of the Book of Genesis. Translated 
by Dr. Baikie.*^ Svo. cloth, pp. xxiii. and 339. 1876. 12s. Qd. 

REICHARDT (C. J.). Vocabulary of the Fulde Language, Fulde-English 
and English-Fulde. Zul pp. Svo. cloth. 1878. 10s. 6(/. 

Three original Fullah pieces in Arabic and Roman characters, with 

English translation. 62 pp. Svo. 1859. Is. 6(/. 

GALL A, or OROMONA, or OKOMONICA (East Africa.) 
KRAPF (L.). Vocabulary of the Galla Language, 43 pp. small Svo. cloth, 

1S42. Is. &d. 
PRAETORIUS (F.). Ziir Grammatik der Gallasprache. viii. and 310 pp. 

Svo. 1S93. £1 2s. &d. 
SCOLART (L.). Grammatica oromona ossia della lingua parlata nel paese dei 

Gallas e nell' Abessinia. 63 pp. Svo. 1885. 3s. 
Frasario e vocaboli in lingua Aniarica-Oromona-Araba-Inglese con le 

preghiere in Etiopico. 71 pp. lithographed, 12mo. 1888. 2s. 60^. 
VITERBO (E.). Grammatica e dizionario della lingua Oromonica (Galla). 

2 vols. 150 and 105 pp. small Svo. cloth. 1892. 5s. 
Vol. L Galla-Italiano ; vol. IL Italiano-Galla. 

GHAT (A Bantu language spoken North of Mombasa). 

KRAUSE (G. A.). Proben der Sprache von Ghat in Sahara. Mit Haussan- 
ischer und Deutscher Uebersetzung. Mit einer Kartenskizze und facsimiles, 
pp. 82 Svo. 1884. 4s. . 

Forms Part IL of the " Mittheilungen der Riebeck'schen Niger Expedition. 

TAYLOR (W. E.). Giryama Vocabulary and collections, xxvii. and 140 pp. 

small 8vo. cloth. 1891. 6s. M. 

GREBO (Ivory Coast). 
PAYNE (J.). Dictionary of the Grebo language. 153 pp. small Svo. 1867. 
Very scarce. 16s. 

(A Semitic Language in the North-East of Africa). 
IVIULLER (Fr.). Ueber die Harari-Sprache im oestlichen Afrika. 15 pp. Svo. 
1864. Is. 6fZ. 

HAUSA (East of the Niger), 
DIRR (A.). Manuel pratique de la langue haoussa, langue commerciale du 
Soudan, avec exercices gradues, une chrestomathie et vocabulaire et une 
preface par le commandant MonteiL 140 pp. 12mo, 1895. 5s, 

Kegan Paul, Trench, Triihner and Co., Limited, Paternoster House, 
Charing Cross Road, London: Oriental Catalogue No. X. 

African Languages — Herero, Iho, Idzo. 15 

LE ROUX (J. M.)- Essai de dictioniiaire franfais-liaoussa et liaoussa-fran(;ais, 
precede d'un essai de grammaire de la laugiie haoussa (parlee par les negres 
du Soudan). With a large map of North Africa, xlv. and 330 pp. large 
8vo. 1886. 16s. 
MAGANA HAUSA. Native Literature : or, Proverbs, Tales, Fables, Historical 
Fragments in the Hausa Language, with a translation in English. By 
J. F. Schoen. 12ino. cloth, pp. xx. and 288. 1885. 4s. 
ROBINSON (C. H.). Specimens of Hausa literature ; Hausa text (in Roman 
characters) with English translation, facsimile of the Hausa text and notes. 
xix. 112 pp. and facsimile plates, large 8vo. cloth. 1896. 10s. M. 
Edition without the text in facsimile, 5s. 

Hausa gi-ammar, with exercises, readings, and a vocabulary, 123 pp., 

with a facsimile specimen of Hausa MS. in Arabic characters. 8vo. cloth. 
1897. 5s. Forms a volume of Trtibner's Collection of Simplified Grammars. 

Hausa dictionary in prejjaration. 

SCHOEN (J. F.). Farawa Letafin Magana Hausa, a Primer and Vocabulary in 
the Haussa Language. 2 parts. 8vo. cloth, pp. 53 and 46. 1857. 2s. M. 

Grammar of the Hausa Language. 8vo. cloth, pp. xiv. and 234. 

] 862. 5s. 

Vocabulary of the Haussa Language. Part L English and Haussa. 

Part II Haussa and ; and Phrases and Specimens of Ti-anslations, 
to which are prefixed the grammatical elements of the Haussa language, 
jjp. vi. and 220, 8vo. 1843. 5s. 

Appendix to the Dictionary of the Hausa Language (published 1876), 

Hausa-English Part, with additions of Hausa Literature. Post 8vo. cloth, 
pp. iv. and 206. 1888. 5s. Printed in Roman characters only, ihe 
dictionary, which was published in 1876, is out of print. 

Hausa Reading Book, with the rudiments of grammar and vocabularies, 

and travellers' vade viecuin. 8vo. 1877. 2s. 6d. 

HERERO (South- West Africa). 
BRINCKER (H.). Wurterbuch und kurzgefasste Grammatik des O^i-herero 
mit Beifilgung verwaudter Ausdriicke und Fornien des Oshi-ndonga-Otjanibo, 
herausgegebeS von C. G. Biittner. 351 and 31 pp. 8vo. cloth. 1886. 25s. 
HAHN (C H ). Grundziige einer Grammatik des Herero (im Westlichen 
Afrika), nebst einem Worterbuche, with grammatical tables. 8vo. pp. xi. 
and 197. 1857. 6s. 
KOLBE (F W.) An English-Herero Dictionary, with an introduction to the 
study of Herero and Bantu in general. Post 8vo. cloth, pp. Iv. and 569. 
1883. 15s. 

IBO, or IGBO (North-East of the Niger Delta). 
CROWTHER (Bishop S.). Vocabulary of the Ibo language. 2 vols. 5s. 
Part I. Ibo-English. viii. and 109 pp. small 8vo. 1882. 
Part II. English-Ibo, by J. F. Schoen. 90 pp. post 8vo. 1883. 
Single volumes are sold separately at 3s. each. 
SCHOEN (J. F.). Grammatical Elements of the Ibo language. 12mo. cloth, 
pp. 94. 1861. 2s. 

IDZO, or IDSO (Niger Delta). 
CAREW (W. E. L.). Primer in the Ubani dialect of the Idso language. 27 pp. 
8vo. limp cloth. Is. 6d, 

Kegan Paul, Trench, THibner and Co., Limited, Paternoster House, 
Charing Cross Road, London: Oriental Uitcdogtie No. X. 

16 African Languages — Kabdil, Kajja, Kagnni, Kamha, Kavirondo. 


(IIamitu^ I..\ni;uai;k, Xortu Coast ok Africa). 

AHMED BEN KHOUAS. Notions succhites do grammaiie kabyle. 86 i)ii. 

V-'iuo. 18S1. -Is. 
BASSET (K.). Maiuiel rle laiigvie kabyle (dialecte Zoiiaoua), contenant grarn- 

iiiairo, bihli(igra]iliio, chrcstomathie ct lexiquc. 8vo. clotli. 1887. 7s. M. 

BELKASSEM BEN SEDIRA. Cours do languc kabyle (dialecte Zouaoua), 
gianiniaiie, versions, coiites, fables, &c. 248 and 430 pp. 12mo. cloth. 
1SS7. S.s'. 6rf. 

CREUSAT. Essai de dictionnaire fram^ais-kabyle (Zouaoua) j)i'ccedc des 
cli nionts de cette langue. 12nio. 5s. 

HANOTEAU (A.). Essai de granimaire kabyle rcnferniaut les principes du 
langage parlo par les populations du versant nord du Jurjura, et s])eciale- 
nieut par les Igaouaouen ou Zouaoua, suivi de notes et d'une notice sur 
quelques inscrij)tions en caractcres dits Tifiuar' et en langue Tamaclier't. 
Large 8vo. sewed, pp. xxiv. and 393. Out of print. 1858. 15s. 

NEWMAN (F. W.) Kabail Vocabulary. Supplemented by Aid of a New 
.Source, pp 124, crown 8vo. cloth. 1887. 5s. 

OLIVIER. Dictionnaire fran9ais-kabyle. 316 pp. 12mo. cloth. 1878. 6s. 

KAFFA (A Dialect of Gonga, S.-W. Abyssinia). 

REINISCH (L.). Die Kafa-sprache in Nordost Africa. 2 parts. 93 and 138 
pp. 8vo. 1888. 4s. 


LAST (J. T. ). Grammar of the Kaguru language Eastern Equatorial Africa. 
147 pp. 12mo. cloth. 1886. 2s. 


(Eastern Bantu Language in Eastern Equatorial Africa). 

LAST (J. T. ). Grammar of the Kamba Language (Eastern Equatorial Africa). 
8vo. cloth, pp. 40. 1885. 2s. 

KAVIRONDO (East of Victoria Nyanza). 

WAKEFIELD (M.). V^ocabulary of the Kavirondo Language. 8vo. pp. 7. 
1887. Is. 

KIBANGI (Upper Kongo). 

SIMS (A.). Vocabulary of Kibangi as spoken Ijy the Babangi (commonly 
called Bayansi) on the Upper Kongo from Kwa Mouth (Kasai) to Liboko 
(Bangala). Ill pp. 8vo. 1886. 3s. M. 

KILOLO or LUNKUNDU (Upper Kongo). 

EDDIE (J. B.). Vocabulary of Kilolo as spoken by the Bankundu, a section 

of the Balolo tribe at Ikengo, with a few introductory notes on the grammar. 

203 pj). small 8vo. 1887. 8s. 
McKITTRICH (J. and F. T.). Guide to the Lunkundu language. 230 pp. 

8vo. 1893. 4s. Qd. 
[HAILES (L. M.).] Kilolo-English vocabulary. 159 pp. 8vo. cloth. 1891. 

2s. Qd. 

Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner and Co., Limited, Paternoster House, 
Charing Cross Road, London: Oriental Catalogue No, X, 

African Languages — Ki/tiassa, Kisulmma, Kiteke, Ki-Tikuu. 17 

KINIASSA (Lake Nyassa). 

REBMAN (J.). Dictionary of the Kiuiassa Language. Edited by L. Kiapf. 
8vo. cloth, i>p. viii. and 182. 1877. 5s. 

KISUKUMA (on Victoria Nyanza). 

SEIDEL (A.). Das Kisukunia. Granimatische Skizze mit kisukunia-deutsch 
und deutsch-kisukunia Wijiterbuche. 18 pp. 8vo. 1894. Is. ^d. 

KITEKE (Spoken by the Batekes on the Upper Congo). 
SIMS (A.). Euglish-Kiteke Vocabulary. 190 i>p. small 8vo. boards. 1886. 4s. 

KI-TIKUU and KI-POKOMO (Swahili Dialects). 

WLJRTZ (F.) and SEIDEL (A.). AVurterbuch der Ki-Tikuu und der Ki- 
Pokonio Sprachen in Ost Africa. 63 jip. large 8vo. 1895. 6s. 

KONGO. (8ee also under "Fiote.") 

A. M. D. G. Elements de la langue cougolaise, suivie d'un choix de phrases et 

de deux vocaljulaires. 95 jip. small 8vo. cloth. 1895. 2s. M. 
BARFIELD (J.). The Concords of the Congo Language as spoken at Palaballa, 

being a contribution to the Syntax of the Congo Tongue, with illustrative 

sentences. 160 pp. 8vo_. half calf. 1884. 4s. 
BENT LEY (W. H.). Dictionary and Grammar of the Congo Language, as 

spoken at San Salvador, the ancient capital of the old Congo Empire, West 

Africa, xxiv. and 718 pp. 8vo. 1887. £1 Is. 

Appendix to it, forming pp. 719-1052 of the entire work. 8vo. cloth. 

1895. 10s. M. 

BRUSCIOTTO. Grammar of the Congo Language as spoken 200 years ago, 
translated from the Latin by H. Grattan Guinness, i)]). xii. and 112, 8vo. 
cloth. 1882. 8s. 

^AMBIER. Essai sur la langue cougolaise. 124 i))). interleaved, small 8vo. 
1891. 4s. 

CRAVEN (H.) and BARFIELD (J.). English-Congo and Congo-English 
Dictionary, with Ajipendix containing useful sentences, pp. xii. 284 and 
xix. 8vo. half bound. 1883. 6s. 

GUINNESS (H. G.). Grammar of the Congo Language as spoken in the cataract 
region below Stanley Pool. 267 pp. small 8vo. cloth. 1882. Scarce. 10s. 6d 

KUNAMA (Abyssinia). 

REINISCH (L.). Die Kunama-Sjirache in Nordost-Afrika. Li 4 parts. 90, 
96, 112, and 136 ])p. 8vo. 1881-91. 8s. 

KWAFI, or WAKUAFI (East Africa). 
KRAPF (Rev. Dr. J. L.). Vocabulary of the Engutuk Eloikob, or the 
Language of tlie Wakuafi-Nation in the Interior of E(^uatorial Africa. 8vo. 
cloth, pp. 144. 1854. 3s. U. 


NEWMAN (F. W.). Libyan Vocabulary, an essay towards reproducing the 
ancient Numidian language out of four modern tongues. 204 pp. 8vo. cloth. 
1882. 10s. 6d 

Keijan Paul, Trench, Triihner and Co., Limited, Paternoster House, 
Charinij Cross Road, London: OrinUal Calaloijue No. X, 

18 A/rican Lanjuages — Luha, Lu'jauda, Malma, Malagasy. 

LUBA (Central Africa). 
About b" North Lat., 30° East of Grecnunch. 
SWAN (C. A.). Notes on the grammatical construction of Cliilul)a as s])okeu 
in Ciaronganzo (Central Africa), with brief vocabularies in Luba-Euglish and 
English- Luba, and six chapters in Chiluba from the (!ospel of St. John. 
G3 pp. post Svo. cloth. 1892. 3s. 


(Spoken in the Uganda Country on the Victoria Nyanza). 

JIANUEL DE LANGUE LUGANDA comprenant la grammaire et un recueil de 
contes et de logcndes. Second edition. 286 pp. small 8vo. 1894. 10s. M. 

O'FLAHERTY (Ph.). Collection for a Lnganda-English and English-Luganda 

Lexicon. 41 pp. Svo. cloth. No date (1894). 2s. 
PILKINGTON (G. L.). Handbook of Luganda. 93 pp. 12mo. cloth. 1892. 2s. 

PRI M ER. Lettersand Syllables, and the Commandments in the Luganda Language 
[Ekitabo ekj'o kusoka], Fcap. 8vo. boards, pp. 14. London, 1887. Is. M. 

WILSON (C. T.). An Outline Grammar of the Luganda Language, with an 
English-Luganda and Luganda- English Vocabulary. Fcap. Svo. cloth. 
1883. 3s. 

LUNDA (Language of Central Africa South of Equator). 

CARVALHO (H. A. Dias de). Metodo pratico para faUar a lingua da Lunda. 
xxii. and 391 pp. Svo. 1890. 16s. 
Contains a grammar, chrestomathy, dictionary, &c. 

MAKUA (]Mo§ambique). 

AYRES DE CARVALHO (Soveral). Breve estudo sobre a ilha de Mozam- 
bique acompanhado d'um pequeno vocabulario Portuguez-Macua. 31 pp. 
Svo. 1887. 2s. 

MAPLES (C). Collections for a Handbook of the Makua Language. 100 pp. 
small Svo. cloth. No date (1879). 2s. M. 

RANKIN (D. J.). Arab Tales. Translated from the Swahili Language into 
the Tugulu Dialect of the Makua Lauguage, as spoken in the immediate 
vicinity of Mozambique. Together with comparative vocabularies of five 
Dialects of the Makua Language. Cr. Svo. boards, pp. xv. and 46. 1887. 
3s. M. 


ABINAL et MALZAC. Dictionnaire malgache-franzais. 815 pp. Svo. half 

calf. 1888. £1 5s. 
COUSINS (W. E.). A concise Introduction to the study of the Malagasy 

Language, as spoken in hnerina. Third edition, enlarged, pj). iv. and 80, 

Svo. cloth. 1894. 5s. 
DALMOND. Vocabulaire et grammaire pour les langues malgaches, sakalave 

et betsimitsara. 142 pp. small 4to. 1842. 16s. 
Vocabulaire fran^.-malgache, .suivi d'une petite grammaire et de traductions 

littt'rales malgache-franc. 
ENGLISH and Malagasy Vocabulary, with sentences in both languages illus- 
trating the words used in the Vocabulary. Compiled by three native 

officials. 476 pp. Svo half calf. 1863. 10s. U. 

Kegan Paul, Tr&iwh, Triibner and Co., Limited, Paternoster House, 
Charivri Cross Road, London: Oriental Catcdogue No. X. 

African Languages — Mande, Masai, Mashowi, Matahele. 19 

KESSLER (J.). Introduction to the Language and Literature of Madagascar, 
with hints to travellers, and a map. 90 pp. small 8vo. cloth. 1870. 4s. 6c?. 

MAR RE (A.). Grammaire malgache suivie de nombreux exercices. Second 

edition. 155 and xxiv. pp. small Bvo. boards. 1894. 5s. 
Vocabulaire fraucais-malgache. 391 pp. Bvo. boards. 1895. 8s. 

PARKER (G. W.). Concise Grammar of the Malagasy Language, pp. 66, 
with an Appendix, crown 8vo. cloth. 1883. 5s. 
Forms a volume of "Triibner's Collection of Simplified Grammars." 

RAHIDY (B. ). Cours pratique de langue malgache. In 3 vols, small 8vo. cloth. 
Vol. I. Grammaire. 103 pp. 1895. 3s. M. 
Vol. II. Dialogues usuels et vocabulaire francais-malgache. 291 pp. 

1895. 4s. 
\o\. III. Exercices et vocabulaire malgache-fran9ais. 142 pp. 1895. 4s. 

RICHARDSON (J.). Malagasy for Beginners : a series of Graduated Lessons 
and Exercises in Malagasy, as spoken by the Hovas. 120 pp. 8vo. cloth. 
1884. 4s. 

RICHARDSON (Rev. J.). New Malagasy-English Dictionary. Edited and 
re-arranged, lix. and 832 pp. half bound, 8vo. 1885. £1. 

SARDA (P.). Petit dictionuaire malgache-francais, precede des principes de 

gi-ammaire hova et suivi des phrases et expressions usuelles. 32 and 150 pp. 

small 8vo. 1896. 2s. Qd. 
SEWELL (J. S.). English-Malagasy Dictionary. 380 pp. Bvo. cloth. 1875. 

12s. M. 
VOCABULAIRE fran9ais-malgache redige par les Missionau-es Catholiques a 

I'usage de leurs eleves qui apprennent le fran5ais. jjp. 418, 8vo. cloth. 

1880. 10s. 
New edition of 1894, 8vo. cloth. £1 5s. 

MANDE (SouDAx). 

RAM BAUD (J. B.). Dictionuaire francais-mande. 131 pp. Bvo. 1896. 5s. 
Avec une introduction sur la langue mande et les caracteres distinctifs de cette 

langue et de ses divers dialectes et avec un abrege de grammaire mande. 
STEINTHAL (H.). Die Mande-Negcr-Sprachen psychologisch und phonetisch 

betrachtet. pp. xxiv. and 344, royal Bvo. 1867. 6s. 


ERHARDT (Rev. J.). Vocabulary of the Euguduk Iloigob, as spoken by the 
Masai Tribes in East Africa, pp. 110, 8vo. cloth. 1857. 2s. 6f/. 

MASHONA, or SHUNA {South-East Africa). 

HARTMANN (Rev. A. M.). Outline of a grammar of the Mashona language. 

vii. and 69 pp. post Bvo. cloth, 1893. 5s. 
English-Mashona Dictionary, with appendix of some phrases. 78 pp. 

12mo. cloth. 1894. 6s. 

MATABELE and MAKALAKA (South-East Africa). 

ELLIOTT (W. A.). Dictionary of the Tebele and Shuna languages, xxxiii. and 

441 pp. Bvo. cloth. 1897. 10s. M. 
WEALE (M. E.). Matabele and Makalaka vocabulary, intended for the use of 

prospectors and farmers in Mashonaland. 32 pp. 12mo. cloth. 1893. 5s. 

Kegan Paul, Trench, Trilhner and Co., Limited, Paternoster House, 
Cha^-iwj Cross Ro'id, London: Oriental Catalogue No. X. 

20 African Lamjuages — Mnurifiiit^, Mi(.<///i-, Mirawha. Nagoe. 

BAISSAC (C. ). Etiule sur lo patois cruole niaurii'ieu. !233 p}!. small 8vo. 
1880. bs. 

MUSUK (SroKEN South of the Tshad T.ake). 

MULLER i,F. ). Die IMusukspiachu in Central Africa luifli dcu Aufzeiehnungcn 
von G. A. Krausc hcrausgcgebcn, niit dcni Musuk-dtnitsuliem Vocaliular unii 
einer Kartc. 70 pp. 8vo. 1886. 2s. M. 

MWAMBA (North of Lake Nyassa). 

BAIN (J. A.). Collections of the Mwaniba language spoken at the north end 
of Lake Nyassa. 32 pp. r2mo. 1891. 2s. 

NAGOE (Sub-Dialect of Dahomy). 

BOUCHE (P.). Etude sur la langue Nago (Yorul)a). 51 pp. 8vo. 1880. 
2s. Gd. 


(Hottentots of the South-Weht Coast). 

CHARENCEY (H. de). Elements de la grammaire hottentote (dialecte Nama). 

20 lip. 8vo. 1864. 2s. 
HAHN (Th.). Die Sprache der Nama. 52 pp. 8vo. 1870. 2s. 6f^. 

KRCENLEIN (J. G.). Wortschatz der Khoi-Klioiu (Naniaqua-Hottentottcn). 
Koy. Svo. pp. vi. and 350. 1889. £1 5s. 

OLPP (J.). Nama-Deutsches Woerterbuch. 118 pp. Svo. cloth. 1888. 3s. 

SCHILS (G. H.). Grammaire complete de la langue des Namas. xxi. and 
94 pp. large 4to. 1891. 15s. 

Dictionnaire etymologique de la langue des Namas. 106 pp. 4to. 

1895. £\ Is. 

WALLMANN (J. C). Formenlehre der Namaqua-Spraohe. 95 pp. 8vo. 
1857. 3s. 

NGrONI (South Bank of the Zambesi). 

ELMSLIE (W. A.). Introductory grammar of the Ngoni (Zulu) language, as 
spoken in Mombera's country. 51 pp. 8vo. cloth. 1891. 5s. 

Table of Concords and Paradigm of Verb of the Ngoni language, as 

spoken in Mombera's country. Large folio, folded in book form. 1891. 6s. 


(Identic with Nyanja, for which see). 

COLOMBAROLI (A.). Premiers Elements de Langue A-Sandeh (vulgaire- 
ment appelee Niam-Niam. 99 pp. 8vo. 1895. 4s. 


(East Coast of Africa, Two Degrees South of Pokomo Kivbr). 

KRAPF (L.)and REBMANN (J.). A Nika- English Dictionary. Edited by 
T. H. Sparshott. pp. viii. and 391, Svo. cloth. 1887. 10s. Qd. 

Kegan Paul, Trench, Trnbner and Co., Limited, Paternoster House, 

Charing Cro-^s Rourl, London : Oriental Catalogue No. X. 

African Laiujuages — Nubian, Nupe, Nijamwezi, Nyanja. 21 


(Xile-Valley from the Tropic of Cancer to the Frontier 
OF Abyssinia). 

LEPSIUS (R.). Nubische Grammatik. Mit Einleitung tiber die Volker und 
Spraclien Afrika s. 8vo. clotb, pp.cxxvi.and506. 1880. (Pub. £1 6s.) £1 Is. 
REINISCH (L.). Die Nuba Spraehe. 
Vol. I. Grammatik und Texte. 308 pp. 8vo. 1879. 7s. M. 
Vol. II. Nubisch-deutsehes uud deutsch-nubisches Woerterbueh. 240 pp. 
8vo. 1879. 7s. U. 

NUPE (Basin of the Quorra). 

GROWTH ER (S.). Primer of the Nupe Language, pp. 22. small 8vo. limp 

cloth. 1860. Is. Qd. 
Elements of a Grammar and Vocabulary of the Nupe Language. 

208 pp. 8vo. cloth. 1864. 6s. 
J[OHNSON]*(H.). Nupe Reading Book for the use of schools. 48 pp. 8vo. 

1882. Is M. 


STEER E (Ed.). Collections for a Handbook of the Nyamwezi Language as 
spoken at Unyanyembe. 99 pp. small 8vo. cloth. (No date.) Is. Qd. 


(Bantu Language spoken S. and S.-W, of Lake Nyassa). 

CALDWELL (R). Chi-Nyanja Simplified. Second Edition. 88 and 46 pp. 

r2mo. cloth. 1897. 2s. M. 
HENRY (G. ). Grammar of the Chinyanja [spoken near the shores of Lake 

Nyassa]. 232 pp. post 8vo. 1891. 9s. 
LAWS (R.). Table of Concords and Paradigm of verbs of the Chinyanja 

language (Lake Nyassa). Large folio, folded in book form. 1885. 5s. 
English-Nyanja Dictionary, with a table of Concords of the Chinyanja 

langiiage. 231 pp. post 8vo. cloth. 1894. 7s. M. 
RIDDEL (A.). A Grammar of the Chinyanja language as spoken at Lake 

Nyassa, with Chinyanja-English and English-Chinyanja Vocabularies. 

150 pp. small 8vo. 1880. Out of print. 6s. 
SCOTT (Rev. D. C). Cyclopredic Dictionary of the Mang'anja language 

(usually called Nyanja), spoken in British Central Africa [Mang'anja- 

English and English-Mang'anja]. 737 pp. 8vo. cloth. 1892. 12s. 6(/. 
[F. A. R.] Vocabulary of English-Chinyanja and Chinyanja-English, as spoken 

at Likoma, Lake Nyasa. 2nd edition. 88 pp. Avith table of Concords, 

small 8vo. limp cloth. 1895. Is. 6d. 

OSHIKUANJAMA (German South- West Africa). 

BRINCKER (P. H.). Lehrbuch des Oshikuanjama [Bantu-Sprache in Deutsch 

Sued west- Afrika]. 
Vol. I. Grammatik des Oshikuanjama in Verbindung mit Oshiudonga und 

mit Vergleichungdes Otjiherero. 118 pp. 
Vol. II. Woerterbueh des Oshikuanjama mit Vergleichung des Oshindonga 

und Otjiherero in zwei Thcilen sachlich-gcordnet. 136 pp. 
Two vols. l)ound in one. 8vo. clotli. 1891. 16s. 
Forms Vol. VIII. of the " Lehrbuecher des Seminars fuer orientalische 

Sprachen zu Berlin." 

Kegan Paul, Trench, Trilbner and Co., Limited, Paternoster House, 
Charing Cross Road, London : Oriental Catalojue No. X. 

22 A/ri'-aii LaiKjtnKjcs — Poikjicc, Qiiarix, Jionga^Sa'jdra, Salio. 


(FmcNoii AVestehn Akkica, lirrwEEN the Senegal and Gambia). 

(.iKAMM AR of the M]ioiij^'\vc Language, with Vocabularies. L5y tlie Missionaries 
of the A.B.C.F.M. Gaboon Mission, Western Africa, pp. 94, 8vo. Scarce. 
1847. 10s. 6iL 

DELORME (A.). Dictionnairc franoais-pongoue j)ar les missiounaires de la 
Congivgation rlu St. Esju-it. 354 pp. 8vo. 1877. 10s. 

GACHON. Dictionnairc pongouc-franeais, jirccwlc dcs jirincipcs dc la langue 
IHUigouio par les niissionnaircs de la Congregation du St. Esprit, xxxix. and 
•J88 pp. 8vo. 1881. 8s. 

LE BERRE. Granimaire de la langue pongouce (parlee an Gabon et au 
S.'nOgal). pp. 223, 8vo. 1873. 6s. 

LEJEUNE (Pere). Dictionnaire fran9ais-fangou pahouin precede de quelques 
principes grammaticaux sur cette nienie langue. 347 pp. 8vo. half calf, 
1892. 10s. 

QUARA (Abyssinia). 

REINISCH (L.). Die Quara-sprachc in Abessinien. 3 parts, 8 vo. 1885-87. 7s.6d. 

RONGA, or SHIRONGA, the language of the Shangani. 

(Delagoa Bay). 

JUNOD (H. A.). Abecedaire et livre de lecture en dialect ronga (Baie de 
Dflagoa). 94 pp. 12mo. cloth. 1894. 2s. 

Granimaire ronga, suivie d'un manuel de conversation et d'uu vocaliu- 

laire ronga-portugais-fran9ais-anglais. 308 pp. large 8vo. 1896. 5s. 

SMITH-DELACOUR (E. W.). A Shironga vocabulary: or word-book on the 
language of the natives in the district of Delagoa Bay. 31 pp. 8vo. 
189"3. 4s. 

SAGARA, or MEGI, or KGURU (Bantu Language, jSTorth 
OF LuFiji RivEK, East Equatorial Africa). 

LAST (J. T. ). Grammar of the Kaguru Language (Eastern Equatorial Africa). 
Small 8vo. cloth, pp. 147. 1886. 2s. 


REINISCH (L.). Die Sprache der Irob-Saho in Abessinien, 56 pp. 8vo. 
1878. Is. 6'/. 

REINISCH (L.). Saho-Sprache. 
Vol. I. — Texte der Saho Sprache mit deutscher Uebersetzung. 315 m. 8vo. 

1889. 8s. 
Vol. IL— Saho-Deutsches Woerterbuch. 492 pp. 8vo. 1890. £1 4s. 

SHAMBAA, or SHAMBALA (German East Africa). 

SEIDEL (A.). Handbuch der Sliambala Sprache in Usambara. With texts 
ill Shamliala, and a German-Shambala and Shanibala-German vocabulary. 
140 pp. 8vo. 1895. 5s. 

WOHLRAB and JOHANSEN. Shambaa Lcsefibel. 48 pp. small 8vo. 
1892. Is. 6d. 

Kegan Paul, Trench, Triihner aiid Co.., Limited, Paternoster House, 
Charing Cross Road, London: Oriental Catalogue No. X. 

African Languages — Somali, Susou, Swdhili. 23 


(From the Straits of BIb el Maxdal, Round by Cape 
GuARDAFUi, Down to the 4° Southern Latitude). 

LIGHT (R. H ). Euglisli-Somali Sentences and Idioms for the use of sportsmen 
and visitors in Somaliland. 23 pp. small 8vo. 1896. 2s. 
Printed in Roman characters only. 

LARAJASSE (de). Somali -English and English-Somali Dictionary. 301 pp. 
8vo. cloth. 1897. 12s. 

and CYPRIEN DESAMPONT. Practical Somali Grammar, with 

a manual of sentences. 265 j^p. 8vo. cloth. 1897. 12s. 

Both works are printed in Roman characters only. 
SCHLEICHER (A. W.). Die Somali Sprache, L Text, Lautlehre, For- 
menlehre und Syntax, xvi. and 159 pp. 8vo. 1892. Qs. 
Part II. will never be published, as the author died in Africa. 

SUSOO, or SOSO (Mandingo Dialect of Senegambia). 

DOUGLIN (Rev. P. H.). A Reading Book in the Soso Language, pp. viii. 

and 120, small 8vo. cloth. 1887. 2s. M. 
DUPORT (J. H.). Outlines of a Grammar of the Susu Language (West 

Africa), pp. 28, 8vo. No date (1882). Is. U. 
ENDEMANN (K.). Versuch einer Grammatik des Sotho. 201 pp. 8vo. 

1876. 6s. 
Printed in Roman characters only. 
OUTLINES of a Grammar in the Susu Language. 8vo. sewed. Is. Qd. 
RAIMBAULT. Dictiounaire fran9ais-soso et soso-fran9ais. pp. x. and 165, 

small 8vo. cloth. 1885. 7s. Gd. 

BUETTNER (C. G.). Suaheli-deutsch und deutsch-suaheli AVoerterbuch. ix. 
and 269 pp. 8vo. cloth. 1890. 13s. 6d. 
Forms A'^ol. III. of the " Lehrlnicher des Seminars fur orientalische Sprachen 
zu Berlin." 

Suaheli-Schriftstiicke, in Arabic and Roman characters, Avitli German 

translation and notes, xi. and 206 and 73 pp. and 11 lithographic plates, 
8vo. 1892. £1 2s. Qd. 
Forms Vol. X. of the "Lehrbiicher des Seminars fiir orientalische Sprachen zu 

• Lieder und Geschichten der Suaheli [in German, being the second vol. 

of the " Suaheli Anthologie," by the same author]. 202 pp. 8vo. 1894. 4s. 
Anthologie aus der Suaheli-Litteratur (Gedichte und Geschichten). 

Vol. I. Swahili text in Roman characters. Vol. II. German translation. 

188 and 202 pp. in one voL 8vo. 1894. 18s. 
DAULL. Grammaire kisouahili. 125 pp. 12mo. bound. 1879. 2s. Qd. 
DELAUNAy. Grammaire kiswahili. 173 p^x small 8vo. boards. 1885. 6s. 
KRAPF (L.). Outline for the Elements of the Kisuaheli Language, with 

sjiecial reference to the Kinika dialect. 142 p]). 8vo. cloth. 1850. 7s. Qd. 
Dictionary of the Suahili Language. With Introduction containing 

an outline of a Suahili Grammar, pp. xl. and 433, roy. 8vo. cloth. 1882. 

(Pub. £1 10s.) 10s. M. 
M ADAN (A. C. ). English-Swahili Vocabulary, compiled from the Works of the 

late Bishop Steere and from other sources, pp. 56, 8vo. cloth. 1885. 2s. 

Kegan Paul, Trench, Triihner and Co., Limited, Paternoster House, 
Charing Cross Road, London: Oriental Catalogue No. X. 

24 Africafi Lamjxiages — Taita. 

MADAN (A. C.)- English -Swaliili Dictionary, ennipiled for the use of the 
Uiiivorsities Mission to Central Africa, vi. and 415 pp. 8vo. cloth. 1894. 

NETTELBLADT (F. v.). Snaheli Dragoman, xii. and '2.5(5 pp. Svo. 1891. f)s. 
C'oNTKNTs. — Oespniche, Worterbuch und praktischc Anleituugen zuni Verkehr 

niit don Eingoborcnon in Deutsch Ost-Afrika, mit Vorwort von L. von 

RADDATZ (11.). Die Suahili-Sprache mit cineni Anhange : Sudan-Arabisch 

iind KinfiUnung indie Ikntusprachcn. xiv. and 176 pp. Svo. 1892. 3.s. Qd, 

SACLEUX (Ch.). Dictionnaire francais-swahili. 989 and 40 pp post Svo. 
half calf. 1891. £1 Is. 
Added is : Catalogue des plantes de Zauiiibar, Peniba, Monibassa, Anion, &c. 

SAINT PAUL ILLAIRE (AV.). Suaheli Handbuch. 202 pp. Svo. cloth. 
1890. 10s. U. 
Forms Vol. II. of the " Lehrbucher des Seminars fiir orientalische Sprachen." 
Swahili Sprachfuhrer. 575 pp. Svo. cloth. 1896. 10s. 

SEIDEL (A.). Praktisclie Granmiatik der Sualieli-Sprache, mit Uebungs- 
stuecken, einem Lesebuchc und einem deutsch-kisuaheli Woerterbuchc. 
18-2 pp. r2mo. cloth. No date (1896). 2s. Qd. 
Forms Vol. XXXII. of the " Kunst der Polyglottie. " 

STEERE (E. ). Handbook of the Swahili Language, as spoken at Zanzibar. 
Fourth edition. Revised and enlarged by A. C. Madan. Svo. pp. xxii. and 
458. 1894. (Pub. at 6s.) 4s. 

Swahili Exercises, pp viii. and 118. Svo. boards. 1886. 2s. Qd. 

Swahili Tales as told by natives of Zanzibar, Swahili text with trans- 
literation in Roman characters, an English translation, and notes, xvi. 
and 501 pp. post Svo. N.D. (1889). 5s. 

SVLLABAIRE swahili. 64 pp. 12mo. 1893. 2s. 

TAYLOR (W. E.). African AphorLsms ; or, Saws from Swahililand collected, 
translated, and annotated. Svo. cloth. 3s. 



WRAY (J. A.). Elementary Introduction to the Taita Language [Eastern 
Equatorial Africa]. 128 ])i). 12mo. cloth. 1894. 2s. 

TAMASHEK, or TUWARIK (Nomadic Tribes, Western Sahara). 

FREEMAN (H. S.). Grammatical Sketch of the Temahuq or Towarek 
Language. 47 pp. Svo. cloth, out of print. 1862. 5s. 

HANOTEAU (A.). Essai de grammaire de la langue Tamachek (Touareq) 
2icme edition, renfermant les principes dvi langage parle par les Imouchar 
ou Touareg, des conversations en Tamashek, des facsimile d'ecritiu-e en 
caracteres Tifnar et une carte indiquant les parties de I'Algerie ou la langue 
berbere est encore en usage. 31, 299 pp. Svo. 1896. 15s. 

KAOUI (S. Cid.). Dictionnaire franeais-tamaheq (langue des Touaregs). 894 pp. 
4to. lithograi)hed. 1894. £2 2's. 

MASQUERAY (E. ). Dictionnaire fran9ais-touareg (dialecte des Taitoq) 
suivi d'observations grammaticales. Parts 1 to 3 (as far as published), 
pp. 1-362. Svo. 1893-95. 6s. each part. 

Kegan Paul, Trench, Trilhner and Co., Limited, Paternoster House, 
Charing Cross Road, London: Oriental Catalogue No, X. 

African Languages — Temne, Teneriffe, Tig re. 25 

MASQUERAY (E.). Observations grammaticales sur la grammaire Touareg 
et textes de la Tamahaq dcs Taitoq, publics par R. Basset et Gaudefroy- 
Demombynes. Part I. 96 pp. 8vo. 1896. 5s. 

TEMNE (Sierra Leone, West Africa). 

ELBA (A. A.) and COLE (E. T.). Tenuie Reading Book. 32 pp. 12mo. limp 
caoth. 1892. Is. M. 

KNOEDLER (C). A Temne Primer for the use of Temne Schools in West 
Africa. 20 jip. 12mo. 1865. Is. M. 

SCHLENKER (Rev. C. ¥.). Grammar of the Temne Language. 8vo. cloth. 
1864. 7s. M. 

An English-Temne Dictionary, pp. viii. and 403, 8vo. cloth. 1880. 

10s. Qd. 

A Collection of Temne Traditions, Fables, and Proverbs, Avith an 

English Translation, as also some Specimens of the Author's own Temne 
Compositions and Translations. To which is appended a Temne-English 
Vocabulary, pp. xxii. and 298, 8vo. cloth. 1861. 6s. 


BUTE (Marquess of). On the Ancient Language of the Natives of Tenerifie. 
8vo. 1891. 2s. 


(Sejiitic Language North of the River Takazz^, in Abyssinia), 

BEURMANN (M. von). Vocabulary of the Tigre Language, -with a gram- 
matical sketch by A. Merx. viii. and 78 pp. 8vo. cloth. 1868. 2s. Gel. 

CAMPERIO (M.). Manuale tigre-italiano con due dizionarietti italiano-tigre 
and tigre-italiano e cartina dimostrativa degliidiomi parlati in Eritrea. 177 
])p. 12nio. cloth. 1894. 3s. 

MUNZINGER (W.). Vocabnlaire de la langue tigre [Tigre-Frencli]. 8vo. 
pp. X. and 93. 1865. 3s. 
The Tigre words are \vi'itten in Ethiopian characters, with Roman trans- 

PERINI (R.). Manuale teorico-iu-atico della lingua tigre. 122 pp. 8vo. 
1893. 3s. M. 

PRAETORIUS (F.). Grammatik der Tigrina Sprache in Abessinien, liaupt- 
saechlich in der Gegend von Aksuni und Adoa. Two parts. 367 pp. 8vo. 
1871-72. (Pub. at 13s. Qd.) 10s. 
All Tigrina words are i)rinted in Ethiopian characters. 

SCHREIBER (J.). Manuel de la langue tigrai. Parlee au centre et dans Ic 
nord de I'Abyssinie. 
Vol L pp. iv. and 93, 8vo. 1887. Qs. 

Vol. IL Contents. — Tigrai texts with French translation, notes, and a Tigrai- 
French vocabulary, pp. 94-227, 8vo. 1893. 8s. 

VITO (L. de). Grammatica elenientare della lingua tigrigna. 87 pp. 8yo. 

1895. 5s. 
The Tigrigna words are printed in the Amharic character, with Roman 

— \ Vocabulario della lingua tigrigna con introduzionc e indice italiano- 

tigrigna del Conti Rossini Carlo. 166 i)p. large 8vo. cloth. 1896. 9s. 

Esercizi di lettura in lingua tigrigna. 69 pp. 8vo. cloth. 1894. 55. 

jCegan Paul, Trench, Triilmer and Co., Limited, Paternoster House, 
Charing Cross lioad, London: Oriental Catalogue No. A'. 

'2G African Lamjuatjes—Tumhuka, Ihnhnndu, Va!, Wulof, Xosa. 


(Language of the People Living in Suujection to the Ngoni, 

ox the AVest Side of the Lake Nyassa). 
ELMS LIE (W, A.). Table of Concords and jiavadigni of verbs of the Tunibuka 
I.aiimiaj^o (as sjwkeii in Monibcra's country). Large folio, folded in book 
forn'i. 1S91. 6s. 

(Thk Language of the Inhabitants of Bailundu and Bihe, and 

other Countries of West Central Africa). 
SANDERS (W. H.). Unibnndu-English and English-Umbundu Vocabulary, 

rontaining a list of 3000 words. 76 pp. 12mo. boards. 1885. 7s. M. 
STOVER (W. II.). Observations upon the grammatical structure and use of 
the Umbundu. 83 pp. 12nio. boards. 1885. 7s. U. 

VAI, or VEI 

(Spoken on the Banks of the Gallina River, and at Cape Mount, 
in the Liberian Republic). 

KOELLE (S. AV.). Outlines of a Grammar of the Vei Language, together 
with a Vei-English Vocabulary. With Appendix: an Account of the 
Discovery and Nature of the Vei Mode of Syllabic Writing. 8vo. cloth, 
pp. 256. Out of print. Scarce. 1854. 10s. &d. 

WOLOF (Senegambia, "West Africa). 

BOILAT. Grammaire de la langue woloffe. 430 pp. roy. 8vo. 1858. 15s. 

DARD (J.). Grammaire wolofe ; ou, methode pour etudier la langue des 
noirs qui habitent les royaumes de Bourba-Yolof, de Walo, de Darnel, de 
Hour-Sine, de Saloume, de Baole, en Senegambie ; suivie d'un appendicc, 
oil sont etablies les particularites les plus essentielles des principales langues 
de I'Afrique Septentriouale. pp. x. xxii. and 214. Svo. cloth. 1826. 6s. 

Dictionnaire francais-wolof et fran9ais-bambara, suivi du dictionnaire 

wolof-fran9ais. xxxii. and 300 pp. 8vo. 1825. 5s. 

KOBES (A.). Grammaire de la langue volofe. vi. and 360 pp. Svo. St. 
Joscjyh de Ngasohil, 1869. Scarce. £1 Is. 

ROGER (de). Recherches philosophiques sur la langue ouolofe suivies d'un 
vocabulaire abrege fran9ais-ouoloff. pp. 173, 8vo. 1829. 2s. Gd. 

XOSA, or K FIR. 
BONATZ (T. A.). Anleitung zur Erlernung der Katfer-Sprache nach T. W. yard's Grammatik. pp. xii. and 292, Svo. 1862. 6s. 
CRAWSHAW (J.). First Kafir course. Second Edition. 133 pp. Svo. boards. 

1S94. 5s. 
McLAREN (J.). Introductory Kafir Grammar with progressive exercises. 

112 pp. post Svo. cloth. 18S6. 5s. 
NAGEL (E.). Prakt. HlUfsbuch der Kaferu-Sprache. Zur leichteren Ver- 

staeudigung mit den eingeboreneu Kaffern Sud-Africas. Svo. pp. 43. 

1887. Is. 6d. 

Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner and Co., Limited, Paternoster House, 
Charing Cross Road, London: Oriental Catalogue No. X. 

African Languages — Tao, Yoruba, Zulu-Kafir. 27 


(South and East of the Lake Nyassa, as far as the Coast). 

HYNDE (R, S.). Second Yao-English primer. 104 pp. 12mo. cloth. 1894. 
Is. 6d. 

MAPLES (Ch. ). Yao-English Vocabulary, compiled from various sources. 
114 pp. small 8vo. 1888. 5s. 

STEERE (E.). Collections for a Handbook of the Yao Language. 105 pp. 
8 vo. cloth. 1871. 25. 

YORUBA (Eastern Half of the Slave Coast). 

BO WEN (T. J.). Grammar and Dictionary of the Yoruba Language, with an 
Introductory Description of the Country and People of Yoruba. 4to pp. 
228, w-ith a map. 1858. Out of print. £1 5s. 

CROWTHER (S.). English- Yoruba and Yoruba-English vocabulary, vii. and 
48 and 196 pp. 8vo. half calf. 1843. 6s. 
No titlepage to this edition was ever printed. 

Grammar of the Yoruba Language. 52 pp. 8vo. cloth. 1852. 2s. 

Grammar of the Yoruba Language and Yoruba-English vocabulary, 

together with introductory remarks by 0. E. Vidal. v. 38, \-ii. 52, and 
291 pp. 8vo. cloth. 1852. 7s. 6d. 

Vocabulary of the Yoruba Language (Yoruba-English only), together 

with introductory remarks, by the Right Rev. 0. E. 'S'idal. 8vo. cloth, 
pp. viii. and 38 and 292. 1852. 6s. 

RABAN (J.). The Eyo Vocabulary (Dialect of Yoruba). Part IL Contents.— 
Alphabet, Verbs, Nouns, Phrases. Sentences, and English-Eyo Vocabulary. 
36 pp. 12mo. Scarce. 1832. 2s. 6d. 

WOOD (J. B.). Notes on construction of the Yoruba language. 48 i)p. 8vo. 
1879. Is. 6d. 

ZULU-KAFIR. (See also under "Ngonl") 

AMBROSIUS. Grammatik der Zulu-Kaffirischen Sprache. 210 pp. 8vo. 
1890. 10s. 

BOYCE (W. B.). Grammar of the Kafir Language. 54 pp. 4to. 1834. Very 
scarce. 15s. 

The same. Second Edition, augmented and improved by vocabulary 

and exercises by "\V. J. Davis. 228 pp. 8vo. 1844. 9s. 

COLENSO (J. W. ). First Steps in Zulu: being an elementary grammar 
of the Zulu language. Fourth Edition. 161 pp. small 8vo. 1890. 
7s. 6rf. 

Zulu-English Dictionary. 552 pp. 8vo. half calf. 1861. 6s. 

Zulu-English Dictionary. Second Edition, revised and enlarged. 

673 pp. small 8vo. cloth. 1884. 12s. 

DOHNE (T. L.). Zulu -Kafir Dictionary, etymologically explained, with 
copious illustrations and examples, preceded by an introduction on the 
Zulu-Kafir language, pp. xlii. and 418, royal 8vo. Out of print. 1857. 
£1 Is. 

GIBBS (S.). Easy Zulu Vocabulary and Phrase-book, with grammatical 
notes. 53 pp. small Svo. 1890. 3s. Qd. 

Kegan Paul, Trench, TrUbner and Co., Limited, Paternoster House, 
Charing Cross Road, London: Oriental Catdlo<jue No. X, 

28 Africnn Languages — Zulu- Kafir. 

GROUT (L.). Tho Isizulu: a graniinar of the Zulu lauj^iuige, with a historical 
iutroduotion. New Edition, rovisod. 313 pp. large 8vo. cloth. 1893. 16s. 

The same. First Edition. 432 pp. Svo. 1859. (Pub. £1 1*.) 6s. 

Observations on the Prepositions, Conjunctions, and other Particles of 

the Isizulu and its cognate languages. 1'2 jjp. 8vo. 1859. Is. 6(/. 

MATE (Ph.). Kleines deutsch-kalihischcs Wiirterbuch. 173 pj). small Svo. 
bound. 1891. 3s. 

NG'UNEMO, Isigania, i.e., English-Katir Vocabulary. 219 pp. Svo. cloth. 
No date. 3s. Qd. 

NG'UNEMO, Igrama Lesingisi, i.e., English Grammar for Kafirs. 449 pp. Svo. 
cloth. No date. 5s. 

PERRIN'S English-Zulu Dictionary. Fourth Edition, revised and enlarged. 
334 pp. 12mo. cloth. 1890. 4s. 

ROBERTS (Ch.). English-Zulu Dictionary, with the principles of pronun- 
ciation and classilication fully explained. Second Edition, with Supplement. 
267 pp. r2mo. cloth. 1895. bs. 

The Zulu-Kalir Language Simplified for Beginners. Third edition, 

enlarged. 177 pp. Svo. cloth 1895. 6s. 
pp. 123 to end contain an English-Zulu and Zulu-English Vocabulary. 

The South - African Traveller's Handbook, containing a brief outline 

of the Zulu-Katir grammar and a large number of English words, sentences, 
and dialogues rendered in Zulu-Katir, Xosa-Kafir, and Dutch. 172 pp. 
r2mo. cloth. 1879. Out of print. 6s. 

SCHREUDER (H. P. S.). Grammatik der Zulu-Sproget. Fortale og anmaerk- 
ninger af C. A. Holmboe. 8S pp. Svo. 1S50. 5s. 


AFRICA AND THE AMERICAN NEGRO. Addresses and Proceedings of 
the Congress on Africa, held in Atalanta, U.S.A., in December, 1895. 
242 pp. text, with numerous illustrations, Svo. 1896, 7s. Qd. 

BIRD (J.). Annals of Natal. 1495 to 1845. 2 vols. 732 and 484 pp. royal 
Svo. cloth. 1888. £2. 
The author had access to the archives of the Cape Government and to the 
Record Office in London, and has copied numerous otficial documents with 
permission of the Secretary of State. 

BURTON (R. F.). Abeokuta and the Cameroons Mountains: an Exploration. 
2 vols. With folded map. Fine half calf. 1863. Scarce. 25s. 

CAPE OF GOOD HOPE ARCHIVES. Precis, edited by H. C. V. Leibbrandt. 
Svo. Viz. : 
Letters received from 1695 to 1708. 474 pp. 1896. Qs. 
Letters dispatched from 1695 to 1708. 397 pp. 1896. Qs. 
Journal from 1699 to 1732. 341 pp. 1896. 6s. 
Defence of W. Adriaan van der Stel. 198 pp. 1897. 5s. 

DAUMAS (E. ). Les chevaux du Sahara et les mccurs du de.sert. New 
Edition, revised and enlarged by Emir Abdel Kader. viii. and 541 pp. 
large Svo. 1862. (Pub. Ss.) 4s. 

Keijan Paul, Trench, Triibner and Co., Limited, Paternonter House 
Charing Cross Road, London : Oriental Catalogue No. X, 

BooT{s on Africa. 29 

DRURY. The Adventures of Robert Drury during Fifteen Years' Captivity 
on the Island of Madagascar. Containing a description of that island, 
to which is added a vocabulary of the Madagascar language. Written by 
himself, and now carefully revised and corrected from the original copy, 
xii. and 459 pp. large 8vo. 1807. 4s. 

ELLIS (A. B.). The Tshi-speaking Peoples of the Gold Coast of West Africa, 
their religion, manners, customs, laws, language, etc. vii. and 343 pp. 
with map, large Svo. cloth. 1887. (Pub. 10s. M.) 5s. 

The Ewe-speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast of West Africa, their 

religion, manners, customs, laws, languages, etc. viii. and 331 pp. with a 
map, large Svo. cloth. 1890. (Pub. 10s. M.) 5s. 

A History of the Gold Coast of West Africa, xi. and 400 pp. with 

map, cloth, large Svo. 1893. (Pub. 10s. 6d) 5s. 

The Yoruba-speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast of West Africa, their 

religion, manners, customs, laws, language, etc., with an appendix con- 
taining a comparison of the Tshi, Ga, Ewe, and Yoruba languages. 402 pp. 
Svo. cloth. 1894. (Pub. 10s. U.) 5s. 
EMIN PASHA IN CENTRAL AFRICA : being a collection of his letters and 
journals. Edited and annotated by G. Schweinfurth, F. Ratzel, R. W. 
Felkin, and G. Hartlaub. Translated by Mrs. R. W. Felkin. With two 
portraits, a map, and notes, xviii. and 547 pp. large Svo. cloth. 1888. 
(Pub. £1 Is.) 10s. M. 
FELKIN (R. W.). Geogi-aphical Distribution of Tropical Diseases in Africa, 
with an appendix on a new method of illustrating the geographical distri- 
bution of disease 79 pp. with table and map, Svo. cloth. 1895. 5s. 
HUTTON (W.). A Voyage to Africa, including a Narrative of an Embassy 
to one of the interior Kingdoms, in. the year 1820. Illusti-ated with maps 
and plates, x, and 488 pfi. large Svo. half calf. 1821. 5s. 
KAUFMANN (W.). The Egyptian State Debt and its relation to Inter- 
national Law, ti-auslated into English, with an historical retrospect since 
1841, and numerous statistics by H. Wallach. 308 pp. Svo. cloth. 1892. Ss. 
KINSKY (Count K.). The Diplomatist's Handbook for Africa. 106 pp. With 
a Political Map. Roy. Svo. cloth. 1897. • 
Contains an historical and statistical abstract of all states in Africa and an 
enumeration of their ti-eaties witli European powers. 
KOELLE (S. W.). African Native Literature; or Proverbs, Tales, Fables, 
and Historical Fragments in the Kanuri or Bornu Language, Kanuri Text, 
with English Translation and a Kanuri-English Vocabulary. 434 pp. Svo. 
1854. 7s. M. 
KRAPF (Rev. Dr. T. L.). Travels, Researches, and Missionary Labours 
during an Eighteen Years' Residence in Eastern Africa. With portrait, 
maps,''aud illustrations of scenery and costume, li. and 566 pp. large Svo. 
cloth. 1860. (Pub. £1 Is.) 10s. M. 
MACDONALD (Rev. Duff). Africana ; or, The Heart of Heathen Africa. 
2 vols, large Svo. cloth. 1882. (Pub. £1 Is.) 10s. U. 
CoxTENT-s.— Vol. I. Native Customs and Beliefs, xvi. and 301 pp. 
II. Mission Life. ix. and 371 pp. 
MULLER CHendrik P. N.). Industrie des Cafres du Sud-Est de I'Afrique. 
Collection recueillic. sur les licux et notice ethnographifiue avec description 
des objets represcntes par Joh. F. Snelleman. 48 pp. text with 27 plates 
(some coloured), and music of Zambesi songs. Small folio. 1893. £1 10s. 
PAULITSCHKE (P.). . Die Africa Litteratur in der Zeit von 1500 bis 1750 n. 
Chr. Ein Beitrag zur geogi-aphischen (^uellenkunde. 123 pp. large Svo. 
1882. 4s. (Continued on page 2 of cover.) 

Kenan Paul, Trench, Truhner and Co., Limited, Paternoster House, 
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